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Towards Designing Modular Structures for Reducing Non-linear Effects of Organizational Change. Marien Krouwel May 15 th 2013 EEWC 2013 DC. Proposition.

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Towards designing modular structures for reducing non linear effects of organizational change

Towards Designing Modular Structures forReducing Non-linear Effects of OrganizationalChange

Marien Krouwel

May 15th 2013

EEWC 2013 DC


Proposition
Proposition

Full-functional modules for organizations in which the impact of a given change is small, are a necessary addition to the field of Enterprise Engineering

I willnot do thisalone!


Small change large impact
Small change, large impact

system type

Business

Information

Data

Context

(environment + demand)

Δlaw

Δcustomerneeds

Function

Construction / ontology

perspective

Construction /

implementation

people

means

Context (supply)


Even small changes in construction may have a high impact
Even small changes in construction may have a high impact

IMPACT

IMPACT

IMPACT

IMPACT

99900

99901

[email protected]

[email protected]


Example 2 exam marks
Example 2: Exam marks

Change:

Procedure v2

N

IMPACT

IMPACT

IMPACT N


Example 3 it starts with it
Example 3: it starts with IT …

  • Change of IT in e.g. financial department  change of

    • Processes in department

    • Interfaces with department

    • Processes in other departments

    • IT in other departments


These effects need to be reduced in order to ease change
These effects need to be reduced in order to ease change

  • Main question

    • Can non-linear effects of changes in the construction of an enterprise be reduced?

  • Non-linear effect: any effect of a change, besides the change itself

    • non-linear implies the effect could also be smaller than the change itself; any other terminology?


Normalized systems for it without combinatorial effects
Normalized Systems: for ITwithout combinatorial effects

  • Combinatorial effects: special case of non-linear in which the impact of a change depends (also) on the size of the system

  • Normalized Systems theory:

    • by adhering to four principles

    • embodied in 5 modular structures

    • a stable IS without CE’s can be created

    • with respect to 8 anticipated changes


Benefits of modularity
Benefits of modularity *

  • Complexity reduction

  • Comprehensibility

  • Easy-replacement

  • Reducing impact of a change

    * (McIlroy, Parnas, Baldwin & Clark, Sanchez & Mahoney, Simon)

  • The key for enterprises to be able to deal with change is modularity!


Modularity in ee
Modularity in EE

  • B/I/D

  • Production/coordination

  • Essence/implementation

    • Essence: transaction and roles

    • Implementation: assignment of technologies (human, ICT)

  • Sub question 1:What are the concerns in the implementation of enterprises?

  • 1b. And to what extent are they generic?

  • The ontological model of an enterprise is a better starting point for modularization than traditional process models (Terlouw)


Ex implementation concerns
Ex. implementation concerns *

  • Employees

  • Roles/departments/functionary types

  • Competences

  • Equipment, devices, applications, databases, infrastructure, etc.

  • Channels

  • Workplace/office locations

  • * (Op ’t Land and Krouwel, 2013)


Organizational modular structures
Organizational modular structures

Element

Trans-action

Actor

Role

Info. object

Elements

organization

=

n Instances

of Elements

  • Sub question 2:What modular structures can deal with some of the generic concerns without introducing NLE’s?


Example european patent office
Example: European Patent Office

  • Differences in:

  • Order of working

  • Language(s)

  • Deparments

  • Law

  • Channels

  •  IT


Example european patent office1
Example: European Patent Office

  • Change

    • Internal structure of core and GC’s changes indepedently

    • Existence of and interactions between core and GC’s remain


Limitation nle s within transactions
Limitation: NLE’s within transactions

  • Dealing with NLE’s between transactions is a totally different (and larger?)problem!

  • In NS: how to avoid two action elements that do similar things




Gathering implementation concerns
Gathering implementation concerns

  • Literature

    • Enterprise Architecture

    • Modularity

    • Organization design

  • By looking for instabalities in current implementations

    • What happens if…

    • Comparing different implementations (e.g. EPO)


Inter dependencies and change frequency
Inter-dependencies and change frequency

  • Dimensions may have interdependencies, e.g.,

    • adding e-mail as sales channel, requires an e-mail server, application, desktop, etc.

    • new application requires new competences

  • Some dimensions change quickly, others much slower

    • Quick(er): employees

    • Slow(er): roles/departments, new channel to offer services


Designing modular structures
Designing modular structures

  • Principles

  • Guidelines

  • Patterns

  • Elements


Experiment 1
Experiment (1)

  • Five groups, randomly assigned, consisting of

    • enterprise (transformation) architects

    • IT architects

    • business analysts

    • IT managers

  • Four groups will be given assignment to model the implementation of described enterprise

    • Group 1: implementation concerns

    • Group 2: modular structures

    • Group 3: modular structures + implementation concerns

    • Group 4: no additional aids


Experiment 2
Experiment (2)

  • Group 5 will rank implementations on presence of non-linear effects of some changes

    • First individually

    • Then together to reach consensus



Expected i mpact on theory
Expected impact on theory

  • Extension to/detailing of Framework of Enterprise Engineering (Hoogervorst, 2011)

  • Applying Normalized Systems theory to the level of enterprises

  • Clues for identifying non-linear effects

    • Concerns to look for

    • People to talk to


Expected impact on practice
Expected impact on practice

  • Implementation concerns enable

    • better understanding of current organization implementation

    • to design future organization implementation(s)

    • to make informed change decisions

    • designing agile IT

  • Modular structures enable

    • designing enterprises that are able to change quickly

      • in which transformations are easy and successful

    • TOGAF enterprise continuum


Questions
Questions

[email protected]

[email protected]


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