China since 1945
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China since 1945. From 1945 to 1949 China was involved in a civil war In 1949 the Communists win and establish the People’s Republic of China Mao becomes the leader of China. Mao Tse-tung. China since 1945.

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China since 1945

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China since 1945

China since 1945

  • From 1945 to 1949 China was involved in a civil war

  • In 1949 the Communists win and establish the People’s Republic of China

  • Mao becomes the leader of China

Mao Tse-tung


China since 19451

China since 1945

  • Mao declared that China was against imperialism, feudalism, bureaucracy and democracy

  • He had many plans to change China and immediately put them into action

  • His new government enacted many plans to fix problems such as inflation and low production


Mao s plans for china

Mao’s Plans for China

  • The Great Leap Forward

    • Created communes (self-sufficient settlements containing farms and industries)

    • They did not work at all: production fell, life was difficult, China experienced bad weather, rewards were limited

    • The plan was abandoned after two years

“Long live the general direction! Long live the Great Leap Forward! Long live the People’s Commune!”


Mao s plans for china1

Mao’s Plans for China

  • After the failure of the Great Leap Forward Mao attempted a Cultural Revolution

  • The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to change the old order and establish a new socialist society

  • The Red Guard (young men and women) would enforce the policies of the revolution


Mao s plans for china2

Mao’s Plans For China

  • The revolution was to destroy the four olds: old ideology, old thoughts, old habits and old customs

  • Those who opposed Mao were publicly punished

  • Farm production fell, factory work stopped and schools closed

  • As a result there was no economy, many people had left and there was no education

  • It was an enormous failure and Mao ended it in 1969


Question time

Question Time!

  • Why would the people of China still support Mao after two very large failures?

  • Take a few moments to think about why the people might still be behind Mao.

  • Can you think of any examples in our history of when a president has a great failure and we still support him?


Growing division 1962 1965

Growing Division (1962-1965)

  • Mao Zedong vs. Deng Xiaoping

  • charismatic leadership vs. bureaucracy

Deng Xiaoping


Cultural revolution 1966 1976

Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)

  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

    • commitment to revolution and “class struggle”

    • power struggle to succeed Mao

  • Phase I: the rise and fall of “red guards”

  • Phase II: the rise and fall of Lin Biao

  • Phase III: the rise and fall of the “Gang of Four”


Phase i red guards 1966 69

Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69)


Phase i red guards 1966 691

Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69)

  • Purge of party cadres

    • Deng Xiaoping

  • Purge of intellectuals


Phase ii lin biao 1969 71

Phase II: Lin Biao (1969-71)

  • the putative successor to Mao Zedong (tse-tung)

  • In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed

    • to assassinate Mao

    • had to flee to Soviet Union

  • His departure eroded the

    credibility of the entire leadership


Phase iii the gang of four

Phase III: the “Gang of Four”

  • 1972 – 1976

  • power struggle between

    • the radical “Gang of Four”, led by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife

    • Goal continue Cultural revolution…failed when Mao dies and his power is gone…gang of 4 put on trial and convicted….Dang Xiaoping takes power


Diplomatic breakthrough

Diplomatic Breakthrough

  • 1971, PRC became the representative of China in UN (replaced ROC)


Diplomatic breakthrough1

Diplomatic Breakthrough

  • 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing


Mao and zhou died in 1976

Mao and Zhou Died in 1976

  • Turning point in China’s postwar era

  • “Gang of Four” were arrested

  • End of the Cultural Revolution


Mao s legacies

Mao’s legacies


Reforms and opening up

Reforms and Opening up

  • The 3rd Plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee in 1978

    • Deng Xiaoping’s ascendancy

    • economic modernization became focus

  • US-PRC diplomatic relations in 1979


China since 19452

China since 1945

  • Mao dies in 1976 and Deng Xiaoping comes to power.

  • Deng institutes the Four Modernizations, which focuses on improving agriculture, industry, science and technology as well as defense.

  • Deng was in power until his death in 1997


Government in china today

Government in China Today

  • Currently known as the People’s Republic of China (PRC).

  • It is a single-party socialist republic (one party, in favor of the working class)

  • The Communist party holds power

  • The current president is Hu Jianto

  • Beijing is the capital city


Review of china s population

Review of China’s Population

  • Over 1.3 billion people (1/5 of the world’s population)

  • 56 recognized ethnic groups. The Han are the largest (92%)

  • Large population can be attributed to Mao


Population in china

Population in China

  • Efforts were made to limit the population

    • Only 2 children per family law

    • One Child Policy

  • Policies did not work that well

    • Rural families did not comply

    • Males regarded more highly than females


Geography review

Geography Review

  • China is the world’s second largest country by land area (9,326,410 km2)

  • China has a wide range of topography

  • There are numerous plains, plateaus, basins and mountains

  • Only 14% of the land is arable


Chinese language

Chinese Language

  • Many dialects are spoken in China, but Mandarin is the most widely spoken

  • 70% of the people in China speak it

  • It is the most widely spoken language in the world (100 million people speak it worldwide


Facts about the chinese language

Facts about the Chinese Language

  • It is nonphonetic-the written form gives no clues to its pronunciation

  • There are over 20,000 different characters

  • There are four major tones and a “toneless” pitch used. The meaning of a word can change depending on the tone

  • They use a base-ten number system (terms for 1 to 10; 11 would be “ten one”)


Chinese food

Chinese Food

  • Cantonese and Chaozhou

    • Steaming, boiling and stir-frying

    • Dim Sum

  • Beijing and Shandong

    • Steamed bread and noodles rather than rice

    • Beijing duck

Dim Sum

Beijing Duck


Chinese food1

Chinese Food

  • Eastern China

    • Most diverse cuisine

    • Soups; “Red Cooking” (cooking in a stock of soy sauce and red wine)

    • Seafood along the coast

Wuxi Spare Ribs


Chinese food2

Chinese Food

  • Sichuan (Szechuan)

    • Southwestern China

    • More than 4,000 dishes

    • Hottest and spiciest cuisine in China

    • Numerous sauces

    • Stir-frying, steaming and braising

Kung Pao Chicken

Twice Cooked Beef


Religion in china

Religion in China

  • China is officially secular and atheist, but religion is allowed

  • Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism have been the dominant religions for almost 2,000 years

  • Some people practice Christianity (3-4%) and Islam (1-2%)


Taoism

Taoism

  • Daoism

  • Indigenous religion of China; the folk religion of China

  • Philosophy is centered on “the way”--recognizing the true nature of the universe

  • Emphasizes non-action, emptiness, detachment, flexibility, receptiveness, spontaneity and ways of speaking and guiding behavior


Buddhism

Buddhism

  • “Teaching of the awakened one”

  • Buddhism traveled from India during the Han dynasty

  • It has been popular among both commoners and emperors

  • It is estimated that there are between 280 million to 350 million Buddhists. It is the world’s fifth largest religion.

  • 20-25% of China’s population is Buddhist


Buddhism1

Buddhism

  • The Four Noble Truths: in life their exists suffering which is caused by desire

    • Suffering

    • The cause of suffering

    • The cessation of suffering

    • The way leading to the cessation of suffering

  • Suffering can be ceased by following the Noble Eightfold Path


Buddhism2

Buddhism

  • The Noble Eightfold Path

    • Sila: morality

      • Right speech--one speaks in a non hurtful, truthful way

      • Right actions--avoiding actions that do harm

      • Right livelihood--one’s way of life does not harm any one

    • Samadhi: developing mastery over one’s mind

      • Right effort--making an effort to improve

      • Right awareness--mental ability to see things for what they are

      • Right concentration--being aware of the present reality

    • Prajna: wisdom that purifies the mind

      • Right thoughts--change in the pattern of thinking

      • Right understanding--understanding reality as it is, not as it appears to be


Buddhism3

Buddhism

  • The guiding principle of Buddhism is the Middle Way. It is the practice of non-extremism; a path of moderation.

  • All Buddhist branches have these commonalities:

    • All accept the Buddha as their teacher

    • All accept the Middle Way, the Four Noble Truth and the Noble Eightfold Path

    • All accept that everyone can pursue the path toward enlightenment

    • All accept the three types of Buddha and consider Buddhahood to be the highest attainment


Confucianism

Confucianism

  • Developed from the teaching of Confucius

  • System of moral, social, political and religious thought

  • Greatly influenced China up until the 21st century


Confucianism1

Confucianism

  • Elements of the religion:

    • Ritual: system of norms for followers

    • Relationships: people hold different statuses in relationships

    • Filial Piety: respect shown to elders

    • Loyalty: respect show to ruler

    • Humaneness: the Golden Rule

    • Gentleman: everyone should strive to be a gentleman


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