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Environmental services. Camillo FRANCO, Sogesca . European Commission Enterprise and Industry. Summary. Waste management Air emissions Wastewaters . 1 – Waste management: EU objectives. To establish the “the producer responsbility” principle

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Camillo franco sogesca

Environmental services

Camillo FRANCO, Sogesca

European CommissionEnterprise and Industry


Summary

Summary

  • Waste management

  • Air emissions

  • Wastewaters


1 waste management eu objectives

1 – Waste management: EU objectives

  • To establish the “the producer responsbility” principle

  • To grant an efficient, safe and environmentally friendly waste handling, reuse, recovery and disposal


1 waste management eu legislation

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • The European Union's approach to waste management is based on three principles:

  • Waste prevention (quantity and quality)

  • Recycling and reuse

  • Improving final disposal and monitoring


1 waste management eu legislation1

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • Product based legislation:

  • Batteries

  • Packaging

  • WEEE

  • Vehicles

  • Oils


1 waste management eu legislation2

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • Batteries: Directive 2006/66/EC of the EP§C of 6 September 2006 on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators and repealing Directive 91/157/EEC

  • The Directive prohibits the placing on the market of certain batteries and accumulators with a proportional mercury or cadmium content above a fixed threshold. In addition, it promotes a high rate of collection and recycling and improvement in the environmental performance of all involved in the life-cycle, including recycling and disposal.

  • The aim is to cut the amount of hazardous substances - in particular, mercury, cadmium and lead - dumped in the environment reducing the use of these substances and by treating and re-using the amounts that are used.

  • The Directive applies to all types of batteries and accumulators, apart from those used in equipment to protect Member States' security or for military purposes, or in equipment designed to be sent into space.


1 waste management eu legislation3

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • Packaging: European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste

  • The Directive covers all packaging placed on the market in the Community and all packaging waste, whether it is used or released at industrial, commercial, office, shop, service, household or any other level, regardless of the material used.

  • The Commission updates the list of examples given in Annex I to illustrate the definition of the term “packaging”.

  • Member States should take measures to prevent the formation of packaging waste, and to develop packaging reuse systems reducing their impact on the environment.

  • The Member States must introduce systems for the return and/or collection of used packaging to attain defined targets


1 waste management eu legislation4

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • WEEE: Directive 2002/96/EC of the EP§C of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment

  • The Directive applies to a defined list of equipments

  • Member States are to encourage the design and production of EEE which take into account and facilitate dismantling and recovery, in particular the reuse and recycling

  • Member States are to minimise the disposal of WEEE as unsorted municipal waste and are to set up separate collection systems. Member States are to ensure that, as from 13.8.2005, final holders and distributors can return such waste free of charge; distributors of new products ensure that waste of the same type of equipment can be returned to them free of charge on a one-to-one basis; producers are allowed to set up and operate individual or collective take-back systems; the return of contaminated waste presenting a risk to the health and safety of personnel may be refused.

  • By 31 December 2006 at the latest, a rate of separate collection of at least 4 kg on average per inhabitant per year of WEEE from private households must be achieved.


1 waste management eu legislation5

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • ROhS: Directive 2002/95/EC of the EP§C of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment

  • The Directive covers the same scope as the Directive on WEEE (except for medical devices and monitoring and control instruments). It also applies to electric light bulbs and luminaires in households.

  • From 1 July 2006, lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in EEE must be replaced by other substances. However, as it is not always possible to completely abandon these substances, the Commission provides for tolerance levels. In addition, certain uses specified in the Annex to the Directive are tolerated.

  • Derogations are established for some UE countries


1 waste management eu legislation6

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • Oils: Council Directive 75/439/EEC of 16 June 1975 on the disposal of waste oils

  • The Directive applies to any mineral-based lubrication or industrial oils which have become unfit for their originally intended use

  • Member States must ensure that waste oils are collected and disposed of (by processing, destruction, storage or tipping above or under ground).

  • They must give priority to regeneration, i.e. by refining.

  • The following are banned: any discharge into inland surface water, ground water, territorial sea and drainage systems; any deposit and/or discharge of waste oils harmful to the soil and any uncontrolled discharge of residues resulting from the processing of waste oils;

  • The Directive does not authorise mixing waste oils with polychlorinated biphenlys and polychlorinated terphenyls or with toxic and dangerous wastes. Any oil: containing PCBs or PCTs, toxic or dangerous products must be destroyed


1 waste management eu legislation7

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • The revised “waste framework Directive” Directive 2008/98/EC sets the basic concepts and definitions related to waste managament and lays down waste management principles such as the "polluter pays principle" or the "waste hierarchy"

  • There also exist a number of other pieces of legislation covering bio-waste, landfill, incinerators, waste shipments, sewage sludge, hazardous, mining, titanium dioxide, PCBs PCTs, radioactive and agricultural and food waste.


1 waste management eu legislation8

1 – Waste management: EU legislation

  • The revised “waste framework Directive” Directive 2008/98/EC sets the basic concepts and definitions related to waste managament and lays down waste management principles such as the "polluter pays principle" or the "waste hierarchy".

  • Animal by-products including processed products are covered by Regulation (EC) No 1774/20024/2002;

  • There also exist a number of other pieces of legislation covering bio-waste, landfill, incinerators, waste shipments, sewage sludge, hazardous, mining, titanium dioxide, PCBs PCTs, radioactive and agricultural and food waste.


1 waste management the producer duties

1 – Waste management: the producer duties

  • Correctly identify wastes according to the Decision 2000/532/CE – eu Wastes Codes (EWC)

  • Correctly identify by-products (art.5 Directive 2008/98/EC: direct and certain use, the substance is integral part od the process, no adverse impacts, complying technical requirements for use)

  • Define characteristics of the waste: chemical analysis and classification as hazardous or not hazardous


1 laboratories and accreditation

Better use accreditated laboratories

Accreditation

(Reg. EC/765/2008 of 9 July 2008 setting out the requirements for accreditation and market surveillance relating to the marketing of products)

‘accreditation’ shall mean an attestation by a national accreditation body that a conformity assessment body meets the requirements set by harmonised standards and, where applicable, any additional requirements including those set out in relevant sectoral schemes, to carry out a specific conformity assessment activity

1 – Laboratories and accreditation


1 laboratories and accreditation1

Accreditation is awared according to: ISO/IAF 17021 for management systems certification bodies;

ISO/IAF 17024 for persons CB;

ISO/IAF 17025 for laboratories

www.european-accreditation.org

1 – Laboratories and accreditation


1 waste management the producer duties1

Separate and do not mix hazardous wastes with other wastes

Labelling wastes to identify them

Keep proper waste storages to prevent waters and soil pollution (without risk to water, air, soil, plants or animals ... ) e.g.: covered wastes storages on waterpoof soil

1 – Waste management: the producer duties


1 waste management the producer duties2

Keep waste production and disposal records (origin, nature, destination ... ) according to national legislation to grant wastes traceability from production to final destination

Deliver wastes to fully authorised waste management undertakings – transport / disposal / recycle

1 – Waste management: the producer duties


1 waste management costs

1 – Waste management: costs

  • Waste management planning:

  • Consultancy, internal resource, according to specific needs

  • Waste storages: bins, skips, coverages, etc.

  • Chemical analysis:

  • 200 – 800 Euro per sample depending on which parameters

  • Waste transport and disposal:

  • Usually defined as Euro/t: 30-100 Euro/t for non hazardous / 100 – 500 Euro/t for hazardous


1 waste management benefits

1 – Waste management: benefits

  • Prevent pollution

  • Correct costs management

  • Prevent legal responsbilities

  • Good house keeping: good impression to visitors, clients, public authorities, employees; risks and costs reduction


2 air emissions eu objectives and directives

2 – Air emissions: EU objectives and Directives

  • To reduce and prevent air pollution due tolisted industrial plants

  • Directive 1984/360/CE - 1984, June, 28 – air pollutionprevention


2 air emissions eu objectives and directives1

To provide full protection for the environment and human health:

Directive 2001/81/EC of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (acidifiying and eutrophying pollutants and for ozone precursors)

To maintain or improve ambient air quality

Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air

2 – Air emissions: EU objectives and Directives


2 air emissions eu objectives and directives2

To reduce and/or replace the most dangerous organic volatile compounds

Directive 2004/42/CE of 21 April 2004 on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain paints and varnishes and vehicle refinishing products and amending Directive 1999/13/EC

2 – Air emissions: EU objectives and Directives


2 air emissions eu objectives and directives3

To reduce the “integrated” pollution to air, waters, soil from industrial plants

Plants in pre-defined sectors (energy, metals, mineral, chemical industry, waste management, and livestock farming industries) above a certain size must obtain a permit for their activities and meet a number of ‘best available technology’ criteria on pollution prevention, energy efficiency and waste disposal. National authorities are responsible for administrating permits. (Directive 2008/1/EC of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control)

2 – Air emissions: EU objectives and Directives


2 air emissions eu objectives and directives4

To reduce the CO2 emissions and comply to the Kyoto protocol

Installations covered by the EU’s Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) account for half of the EU’s emissions of CO2 and include combustion plants, oil refineries, coke ovens, iron and steel plants, and factories making cement, glass, lime, brick, ceramics, pulp and paper.

National governments allocate, in a ‘National Allocation Plan (NAP)’, allowances to industrial plants to emit certain amounts of CO2. Companies can buy or sell emissions allowances on a market system, giving a financial incentive to lower emissions

2 – Air emissions: EU objectives and Directives


2 air emissions the sme s duties

To get preliminary permits for flue gas emissions (or for IPPC plants)

To comply with all permit requirements

To prevent pollution, recucing emissions, through the application of the Best Available Technology Economically Vaiable (BATEV)

To keep emissions under established limits (concentrations and/or mass flow)

Define levels of emissions with application of approved methods

2 – Air emissions: the SME’s duties


2 air emissions costs

Installing BATEV and/or treatment plants: 105 Euros

To identify required permits / authorisations – to get the permits and renew them:

Consultancy, internal competence, time

To comply with all permit requirements (e.g. monitor air emissions, reporting, etc.):

Depending on what the SME has to do; a chemical analysis of flue gases: 300 – 1000 Euro

2 – Air emissions: costs


2 air emissions benefits

2 – Air emissions: benefits

  • Prevent pollution

  • Prevent legal responsbilities

  • Prevention of social conflicts

  • Add value to the installation and to the business


3 wastewaters the eu objectives and directives

Surface and underground waters protection

Directive 76/464/CE (pollution due to certain dangerous chemicals)

Avoid cumulating dangerous chemicals into the environment

Sustainable use of resources

Directive 2000/60/CE (establishing a framework for the Community action in waters protection)

3 – Wastewaters: the EU objectives and Directives


3 wastewaters the eu objectives and directives1

Additional Directives

82/176/CEmercury

83/513/CEcadmium

84/156/CEmercury

84/491/CEE esaclorocicloesano

86/280/CEE specified hazardous chemicals

3 – Wastewaters: the EU objectives and Directives


3 wastewaters the sme s duties

To get preliminary permits for wastewaters discharge (or for IPPC plants) related to listed pollutants

To comply with all permit requirements

To keep concentrations and/or mass flows of certain pollutants under defined threshold limits

To avoid discharge of polluted waters in underground waters (exceptions admitted)

3 – Wastewaters: the SME’s duties


3 wastewaters costs

Installing treatment plants to respect threshold limits: 105 Euros

To identify required permits / authorisations – to get the permits and renew them:

Consultancy, internal competence, time

To comply with all permit requirements (e.g. monitor air emissions, reporting, etc.):

Depending on what the SME has to do; a chemical analysis of wastewaters: 200 – 500 Euro

3 – Wastewaters: costs


3 wastewaters benefits

3 – Wastewaters: benefits

  • Prevent pollution

  • Prevent legal responsbilities

  • Prevention of social conflicts

  • Add value to the installation and to the business


Game 1 wastes

Question of the SME:

A driver of mine transporting iron scrapes from my factory has been stopped by police; we have been requested to produce proper documents/forms and autorisation for waste trasportation. But we thought they were not wastes and now we have to pay a 3.000 Euro fine. Can you help me to solve the problem?

Game 1: Wastes


Game 2 air emissions

Question of the SME:

A consultant came to visit my plant recently; he told me I have to get the authorisation for my automatic painting plant and that I have to install a new air treatment plant to reduce emissions before getting the authorisation. Is this true?

Game 2: Air emissions


Game 3 wastewaters

Question of the SME:

The environmental control authority took a sample of my wastewaters; concentrations of metals were over the limits. I have to reduce emissions under the limits within two monts. May you help me to face the problem?

Game 3: Wastewaters


How to reply

Applicable laws and standards

Scope of laws and standards: who is involved?

Technical aspects

Times

Expected results - Benefits

Costs

How to reply?


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