2004
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2004. Vincent J. Giblin, General President. MOLD AWARENESS.

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MOLD AWARENESS

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Mold awareness

2004

Vincent J. Giblin, General President

MOLD AWARENESS


Mold awareness

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Mold awareness

MOLD AWARENESS

International Environmental Technology and Training Center

1293 Airport Road, Beaver, WV 25813

Phone: (304) 253-8674 - Fax: (304) 253-7758

E-mail: [email protected]


Objectives

Mold versus fungi

Fungi in history and its importance

Describe parts and types of fungi

Identify health hazards of fungi

Cause and prevention of indoor fungal growth

Current guidance for remediation of fungi

Recommended personal protective equipment

Describe air monitoring limitations and exposure limits

Fungi versus asbestos

Objectives


What is mold

General term used for fungi that produce asexual spores

Artificial grouping similar to the term “weed”

No taxonomic significance

Generally refers to a visible colony of fungi growing in an indoor environment.

“Mildew” is a layperson’s term referring to mold growing in and on substances such as fabrics and wood.

What is Mold?


What is fungi

Kingdom of eukaryotic organisms, without chlorophyll, that have cells bound by rigid walls

Organisms classified in this kingdom:

Absorb food in solution directly through their cell walls and reproduce through spores

None conduct photosynthesis

What is Fungi?


What are these

What are these?

Common Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

Smooth Earthball (Sclerodermacepa)


Linnean classification categories

Category

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Corresponding taxon for man

Animalia

Chordata

Mammalia

Primates

Hominidae

Homo

Sapiens

Linnean ClassificationCategories


Biological classification of the fungi kingdom includes

Mushrooms

Athlete's foot

Apple-scab

Corn smut

Slime moulds

Stinkhorns

Wheat rust

Wood rots

Truffles

Yeasts

And many more…

Biological Classification of the Fungi Kingdom Includes


Alexander fleming

In 1928, while working on influenza virus, he observed that mold had developed accidentally on a staphylococcus culture plate

Mold had created a bacteria-free circle around itself.

Mold culture prevented growth of staphylococci

Even when diluted 800 times

Named the active substance penicillin

Alexander Fleming


Hyphae size

Hair 100 microns

Hyphae belong to the genus Penicillium and they are about 2-4 microns across

Hyphae Size

Hyphae of the water mold Saprolegnia


Spore size

Outdoor air normally always contains some level of these airborne mold spores

Hundreds or even thousands of mold spores per cubic foot of outdoor air

Cladosporium produce light and buoyant spores that aerosolize easily

Dry, maintained carpet typically contains at least 100,000 mold spores per gram of carpet dust

Spore Size

Light Microscope Image of Aspergillus Spores


Spore size puffball

Most molds reproduce by forming spores that disperse into the air in search of more food and moisture (similar to seed dispersal from plants)

Millions of spores being released into the atmosphere from a puffball

Most filamentous mold spores are microscopic and therefore, invisible to the naked eye

Spore Size - Puffball


Mycotoxins

Fungi that produce mycotoxins are referred to as toxigenic fungi

Aspergillus

Fusarium

Penicillium

Stachybotrys

Myrothecium

Fungi that produce potent mycotoxins

Seldom abundant in outdoor ambient air.

Most toxic exposures occur from indoor growth of fungi related to excessive moisture

Mycotoxins


Aflatoxin

Food products contaminated with aflatoxins

Cereal (maize, sorghum, pearl millet, rice, wheat)

Oilseeds (groundnut, soybean, sunflower, cotton)

Spices (chillies, black pepper, coriander, turmeric, zinger)

Tree nuts (almonds, pistachio, walnuts, coconut)

Milk.

Contamination costs US producers more than $100 million per year on average

$ 26 millions to peanuts ($69.34/ha)

Animals that have consumed feed contaminated with aflatoxins

Aflatoxin

Aspergillus flavus


How do i know what mold i have

Bluish-green to green

Penicillium

Aspergillus

Black to brown-black

Aspergillus niger

Alternaria alternata

Cladosporium herbarum

Cladosporium sphaerospermum

Stachybotrys chartarum

Reddish or pink

Fusarium

How do I know what mold I have?


Common fungi

Cladosporium

Penicillium

Alternaria

Aspergillus

Common Fungi

Penicillium chrysogenum

Aspergillus ochraceus


Killer black mold

Stachybotrys chartarum

35% of the isolates from buildings produce

SUPER TOXIC cytotoxic mycotoxins and satratoxins.

Killer Black Mold?


Health effects

All molds have the potential to cause health effects.

(US Environmental Protection Agency)

The ACGIH approach has been to emphasize that active fungal growth in indoor environments is inappropriate and may lead to exposures and adverse health effects.

(American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists)

“There are very few case reports that toxic molds inside homes can cause unique or rare health conditions…” “The common health concerns from molds include hay-fever like allergic symptoms.”

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Health Effects


Health effects1

Burning eyes

Headache

Nausea

Nose bleeds

Allergic Reactions

Asthma

Exhaustion

Sinus infections

Cognitive disorders

Pulmonary hemorrhage

Liver damage

Central nervous system damage

Brain damage

Cancer

Death

Health Effects


How do i prevent fungi growth

Prevent ponding of water

Fix water leaks promptly

Keep relative humidity below 50%

Dry wetted materials within 48 hours

How Do I Prevent Fungi Growth?


Water damage

Catastrophic

Storm flooding

Sewage backflow

Plumbing breaks

Insidious

Water intrusion,

Moisture buildup

Neglect

Water Damage


Ponding on roof

Ponding on Roof


Relative humidity

The amount of water vapor in the air at any given time is usually less than that required to saturate the air.

The relative humidity is the percent of saturation humidity, generally calculated in relation to saturated vapor density.

Relative Humidity


Relative humidity1

Indicates how moist the air is

Ratio of the water vapor density (mass per unit volume) to the saturation water vapor density, usually expressed in percent

Relative Humidity


Relative humidity2

Relative Humidity


Guidelines on assessment and remediation of fungi in indoor environments

NYC Department of Health Guidelines

5 Levels of remediation

Delineates HVAC as its own type of remediation

Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments


Guidelines on assessment and remediation of fungi in indoor environments1

Level I: Small Isolated Areas

(10 sq. ft or less) ceiling tiles, small areas on walls

Level II: Mid-Sized Isolated Areas

(10 - 30 sq. ft.) individual wallboard panels

Level III: Large Isolated Areas

(30 - 100 square feet) several wallboard panels

Level IV: Extensive Contamination

(greater than 100 contiguous square feet in an area)

Level V: Remediation of HVAC Systems (within in the system)

A Small Isolated Area of Contamination (<10 square feet)

Areas of Contamination (>10 square feet)

Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments


Mold awareness

NIEHS Guidelines

Recommended 8-hour training by IUOE

Table 10: Low-level HVAC Mold Maintenance Work Course

Guidelines for the Protection and Training of Workers Engaged in Maintenance andRemediation Work Associated with Mold


Mold awareness

Table 10: Low-level HVAC Mold Maintenance Work Course

Guidelines for the Protection and Training of Workers Engaged in Maintenance andRemediation Work Associated with Mold


Iicrc s520 standard reference guide for professional mold remediation

Professional guidance for water damage restoration provided by the IICRC

Institute of Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration Certification (IICRC)

Locate and eliminate moisture sources

Physically remove the contamination

Clean and dry structural materials

Attempts to kill or encapsulate mold are not adequate to solve the problem

IICRC S520 Standard Reference Guide for Professional Mold Remediation


How do i get rid of mold

Fix the leak or eliminate source of water

Remove moist organic matter needed to grow

Remove areas of fungi contamination

Treat fungal growth with a fungicide

Use a 10:1 bleach and water solution

How Do I Get Rid of Mold?


Fix the leak

Fix the Leak


Moist organic matter

Moist Organic Matter


Respiratory protection

APR and PAPR

P100 cartridge

Respiratory Protection


Mold awareness

Eye protection

Hand protection

Foot protection

Disposable coverall

Tyvek

Respiratory Protection

PPE


Fungicides

BenzaRid™ is a professional colorless, water soluble 1:750 quaternary ammonium (benzalkonium chloride) mold killer

Only kills mold spores which it comes into actual contact with

Lotrimin AF for Athlete’s Foot

Antifungal

Plant fungicide

Chlorine dioxide

Fungicides


Fungal exposure limits

OSHA

PEL ?

ACGIH

TLV?

NIOSH

REL?

Fungal Exposure Limits

Why?

  • ALARA

    • As Low As Reasonably Achievable


Air sampling

Visual Inspection

most important initial step in identifying a possible contamination problem

Bulk/Surface Sampling

not required to undertake a remediation

may need to be collected to identify specific fungal contaminants

Air Sampling


Air sampling1

Should not be part of a routine assessment, but may be necessary if:

An individual(s) has been diagnosed with a disease that is or may be associated with a fungal exposure (e.g., pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis, and aspergillosis)

Evidence from a visual inspection or bulk sampling that ventilation systems may be contaminated

Presence of mold is suspected (e.g., musty odors) but cannot be identified by a visual inspection or bulk sampling (e.g., mold growth behind walls)

If air monitoring is performed, collect and outdoor and indoor samples

Air Sampling


Mold is gold

No established exposure limits

No mandated training requirements

No established clearance criteria

Public concern/fear

Fungi Versus Asbestos

Fungi is living

Spore can regenerate

Mold is Gold


Mold awareness

This material was produced under grant number 46C5-HT16 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Mold awareness

This publication was made possible by grant numbers 5 U45 ES06182-07 and 5 U45 ES09763-07 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH with funds from EPA and DOE. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIEHS, NIH, EPA, or DOE.

End


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