New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry
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New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with Mid-IR Interferometry. Peter R. Lawson Oliver Lay, Stefan Martin, Robert Peters, Andrew Booth, Robert Gappinger, Alexander Ksendzov, and Daniel Scharf Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology

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New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with Mid-IR Interferometry

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New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with Mid-IR Interferometry

Peter R. Lawson

Oliver Lay, Stefan Martin, Robert Peters, Andrew Booth, Robert Gappinger, Alexander Ksendzov, and Daniel Scharf

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

California Institute of Technology

New Technologies for Probing the Diversity of Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets

Shanghai, China

Thursday, 23 July 2009


Overview

Overview

  • Spectra of Earth-like exoplanets

  • Architecture & Design Team Studies

  • Technology Demonstrations

  • Future Prospects

  • Summary and Conclusion

Terrestrial Planet Finder

May 1999

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Mckee taylor report decadal survey 2000

McKee–Taylor Report: Decadal Survey 2000

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Frank Selsis (Lyon)

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Architecture trades and design team studies

Architecture Tradesand Design Team Studies

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

TPF-I

Darwin

Bow-Tie

Linear DCB

X-Array

Planar TTN

Stretched X-Array

Emma TTN

Emma X-Array

TPF-Darwin

TPF-Darwin Architecture Studies

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Properties of a tpf i observatory

Properties of a TPF-I Observatory

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Mass estimates and launch packaging

Mass estimates and launch packaging

  • 3 m design = 6900 kg (w 30% reserve)

  • Mass saving of 30% over previous design

  • Compatible with medium lift LV

    • Delta IV M+

    • Ariane 5 ECA

  • Scaling to smaller diameters

    • 3.0 m 6900 kg

    • 2.0 m4800 kg

    • 1.5 m4100 kg

    • 1.0 m3700 kg

Inspired by a design by

Thales Alenia Space

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Technology demonstrations

Technology Demonstrations

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Technology for a mid ir interferometer

Technology for a Mid-IR Interferometer

  • Science Requirements

  • Architecture trade studies

  • Starlight suppression

    • Null depth & bandwidth

    • Null stability

  • Formation flying

    • Formation control

    • Formation sensing

    • Propulsion systems

  • Cryogenic systems

    • Active components

    • Cryogenic structures

    • Passive cooling

    • Cryocoolers

  • Integrated Modeling

    • Model validation and testbeds

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Technology forStarlight and Noise SuppressionSpatial FilteringAdaptive NullingArray Rotation, Chopping, and AveragingSpectral Filtering


Single mode mid infrared fibers

Chalcogenide Fibers(NRL)

A. Ksendzov et al., “Characterization of mid-infrared single mode fibers as modal filters,” Applied Optics 46, 7957-7962 (2007)

Transmission losses 8 dB/m

Suppression of 1000 for higher order modes

Useable to ~11 microns

Silver-Halide Fibers(Tel Aviv Univ)

A. Ksendzov et al. “Modal filtering for mid-infrared nulling interferometry using silver halide fibers,” Applied Optics 47, 5728-5735 (2008).

Transmission losses 12 dB/m

Suppression of 16000 possible with a 10-20 cm fibre, with aperturing the output.

Useable to ~18 microns (?)

Single-Mode Mid-Infrared Fibers

Example Chalcogenide Fibers, produced on contract by the Naval Research Laboratory

http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF-I/spatialFilters.cfm

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Broadband intensity and phase compensation

Broadband Intensity and Phase Compensation

Birefringent element

splits polarizations

Pupil

Stop

Parabolic mirror

~ 10 x 14 cm

Dispersive element

splits wavelengths

Uncompensated

beam in (~4 cm)

S-polarization

Deformable

mirror

P-polarization

Compensated

beam out (~4 cm)

Pupil

Stop

Dispersive element

re-combines

wavelengths

Birefringent element

re-combines

polarizations

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Tpf i milestone 1 and 3 adaptive nuller

Adaptive Nuller

TPF-I Milestone #1 completed, July 2007

Demonstrated 0.09% intensity compensation and 4.4 nm phase compensation

TPF-I Milestone #3 completed, February 2009

Demonstrated 1.0×10-5 mean null depth with a 34% bandwidth in three 6-hour experiments.

TPF-I Milestone #1 and #3: Adaptive Nuller

“Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay and M. Jeganathan, Applied Optics 47, 3920-3926 (2008).

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


100 000 1 with 34 bandwidth 10 m

100,000:1 with 34% Bandwidth,  = 10 m

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Chop rotate average spectral fit

Chop, Rotate, Average, Spectral Fit

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Demonstrate array rotation, chopping, and averaging

Detect planet signal at a contrast of ≤ 10-6 relative to the star

Show residual starlight suppression from phase chopping and rotation ≥ 100.

Tests run for a total duration of 10,000 s, with one or more rotations at timescales of ≥ 2000 s.

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Planet detection testbed

Planet Detection Testbed

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Technology forFormation Flying

Guidance, Navigation & Control


Precision formation flying

Precision Formation Flying

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Precision leader follower maneuver

Precision Leader-Follower Maneuver

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Tpf i milestone 2 formation control testbed

TPF-I Milestone #2 experiments for the formation precision performance maneuver were completed 30 September 2007

Goal:

Per axis translation control < 5 cm rms

Per axis rotation control < 6.7 arcmin rms

Demonstrated with arcs having 20 and 40 degree chords. Experiments repeated three times, spaced at least two days apart.

Milestone Report published

16 January 2008

TPF-I Milestone #2: Formation Control Testbed

Formation Control Testbed

x axis 4.77 arcmin rms

y axis 5.14 arcmin rms

z axis 2.70 arcmin rms

x axis 2.66 arcmin rms

y axis 2.93 arcmin rms

z axis 1.67 arcmin rms

Relative path of robots for an arc with 20 degree chords

x axis 1.39 cm rms

y axis 2.41 cm rms

Example Milestone Data: Rotation maneuver with 20 degree chord segments

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Recent advances in formation flying

Orbital Express(DARPA) May-July 2007

Demonstrated in-orbit servicing of satellites

Relative maneuvers of two satellites

Transfer of liquids and batteries

Autonomous Transfer Vehicle(ESA) April 2008

Unmanned transport to the International Space Station

10.3-m long and 4.5-m diameter

GPS, video, and human supervision

Two days of demos, and rendezvous and docking

30 September 2008, completed a destructive re-entry

Recent Advances in Formation Flying

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Prisma 2009 and proba 3 2012

Prisma(Swedish Space Corporation) launch 24 November 2009

Rendezvous and docking demonstrations

Prototype “Darwin” RF metrology

Proba-3(ESA) 2012

30-150 m separation for demonstrations

Millimeter-level range control

RF Metrology & Optical metrology

AO for the provision of the coronagraph now out

http://sci.esa.int/proba_3_AO

Prisma (2009) and Proba-3 (2012)

Prisma

Proba-3

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Related new technologies

Related New Technologies

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Large light weight optics

Large Light-Weight Optics

  • Herschel Primary Mirror

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Cryocoolers

Cryocoolers

Advanced Cryocooler Technology Development Program

  • JWST Cryocooler (NGST)

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Technology development in europe

Technology Development in Europe

  • Infrared Nulling testbeds (ESA)

    • Thales Alenia Space

    • EADS Astrium

    • University of Delft

    • Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale

  • Cryogenic Delay Line (ESA)

    • TNO, The Netherlands

  • Integrated Optics and Fiber Optics (ESA)

    • LAOG, Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble

    • Thales Alenia Space

    • EADS Astrium / TNO

    • Université de Rennes

    • Université de Montpellier

  • Breadboard demonstrator for PEGASE (CNES)

  • Cryogenic mid-IR testbed, Inst. Astrophysique Spatiale (under design)

  • RF Metrology for formation flying (Thales Alenia Space)

Thales Alenia Space

TNO

Inst. Astrophysique Spatiale

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


Interferometer technology metrics

Interferometer Technology Metrics

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Accomplished

1999–2009

Remaining

2010–2020

  • Room-temperature experiments & ground-based

  • Broadband mid-infrared starlight suppression has been demonstrated at flight performance levels using the adaptive nuller

  • System-level planet detection has been demonstrated using the Planet Detection Testbed

  • Formation Flying algorithms demonstrated with traceability to flight.

  • Related cryogenic technology

  • Herschel mirror development

  • Cryocooler work for JWST

  • Cryogenic delay line development for ESA

  • Cryogenic engineering & space-based testing

  • Demonstrate component, subsystem, and system performance in a cryogenic environment

  • Demonstrate the detection of biosignatures

  • Validate models of the observatory

  • Complete integration and test plans

  • Demonstrate space-based interferometry

  • Demonstrate space-based formation flying

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers

31


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Further Reading

R. D. Peters, O. P. Lay, and M. Jeganathan, “Broadband phase and intensity compensation with a deformable mirror for an interferometric nuller,” Applied Optics 47, 3920–3926 (2008)

A. Ksendzov, et al., “Modal filtering for mid-infrared nulling interferometry using single-mode silver halide fibers,” Applied Optics 47, 5728–5735 (2008)

A. Ksendzov, et al., “Characterization of mid-infrared single mode fibers as modal filters,” Applied Optics 46, 7957–7962 (2007)

R. O. Gappinger, et al. “Experimental evaluation of achromatic phase shifters for mid-infrared starlight suppression,” Applied Optics 48, 868–880 (2009)

http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/TPF-I/

This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers

32


Backup slides

Backup Slides

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


New technologies for exoplanet detection with mid ir interferometry

Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer

  • Salient Features

  • Formation Flying Mid-IR nulling Interferometer

  • Starlight suppression to 10-5

  • Heavy launch vehicle

  • L2 baseline orbit

  • 5 year mission life (10 year goal)

  • Potential collaboration with European Space Agency

  • Science Goals

  • Detect as many as possible Earth-like planets in the “habitable zone” of nearby stars via their thermal emission

  • Characterize physical properties of detected Earth-like planets (size, orbital parameters, presence of atmosphere) and make low resolution spectral observations looking for evidence of a habitable planet and bio-markers such as O2, CO2, CH4 and H2O

  • Detect and characterize the components of nearby planetary systems including disks, terrestrial planets, giant planets and multiple planet systems

  • Perform general astrophysics investigations as capability and time permit

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


State of the art in nulling interferometry

State of the Art in Nulling Interferometry

P. R. Lawson, New Technologies for Exoplanet Detection with mid-IR Interferometers


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