Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming
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Auto Emissions and Clean Air: Motor Vehicles and Global Warming. Scott Cornett Ian Freeman Chris Morman Jacob Muncy Alia Sisson Morgan Triona. A murder mystery…. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nsJAlrYjGz8. WHO KNOWS what could have been….

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Auto Emissions and Clean Air: Motor Vehicles and Global Warming

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Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

Auto Emissions and Clean Air:Motor Vehicles and Global Warming

Scott Cornett

Ian Freeman

Chris Morman

Jacob Muncy

Alia Sisson

Morgan Triona


A murder mystery

A murder mystery…

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nsJAlrYjGz8


Who knows what could have been

WHO KNOWS what could have been…

  • If the electric car and development had not been dead in its childhood

  • Now…


All signs point to

 all signs point to…

  • GLOBAL WARMING

    • increase in the average temperature of the earth

    • Human activity and emissions

    • Green house effect

  • Causes…

    • Burning of fossil fuels

    • Deforestation


What will happen to our planet

What will happen to our planet?

  • Human society/natural ecosystems…

    • Kill animals and plants in sea and on land

    • Change weather patterns

    • Ice caps melting

    • Spread of disease

  • NO ONE WILL ESCAPE


Most scientists agree

Most scientists agree…

  • The window to prevent the worst effects of global warming is closing at a rapid rate

  • U.S. must reduce carbon emissions by at least 80% by 2050

  •  In June 2009 the House passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, and in November 2009 the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee passed the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act. 

  • Congress currently crafting policy to further reduce emissions


A change will do you good

A change will do you good...

  • Three variables:

    • the amount of fuel used

    • the amount of CO2 released from that particular fuel

    • the number of miles traveled by that vehicle

    • In other words, there are three areas of change in order to decrease vehicle emissions


Policies addressing car emissions and air pollution

Policies AddressingCar Emissions and Air Pollution


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

CAFE

  • In 1974, mpg fell to 12.5 in new cars

  • Passed in 1975 as a response to falling gas mileage capabilities

  • Placed minimum mpg standard on new vehicles

  • New standards it established:

    • 1978: 18 mpg required

    • 1985: 27.5 mpg required


Cafe light truck loophole

CAFE “light truck” loophole

  • Light trucks are considered to be a different category than passenger vehicles

  • Light truck standard is 20.7 mpg, much more lax than the 27.5 mpg requirement for cars

  • Because of the differing requirements, most SUVs, pickup trucks and vans are permitted to emit

    • 29%-47% more carbon monoxide

    • 75% to 175% more nitrogen oxides than passenger cars


Progress of cafe

Progress of CAFE

  • 1985-auto manufacturers got standard lowered from 27.5 to 26 mpg

  • 1990-original standard was restored

  • The aim is to achieve 40% improvement over the next 10-15 years

  • Congress raised standard of light trucks to

    • 21 mpg in 2005

    • 21.6 mpg in 2001

    • 22.2 mpg in 2007


How to accomplish cafe

How to accomplish CAFE

  • Vehicle manufacturers have 3 strategies to meet CAFE standards:

    1) adopt fuel-saving mechanisms in new vehicles

    2) make cars lighter to save fuel

    3) adjust pricing to make smaller cars cheaper, gas guzzlers more expensive

  • Costs to improve fuel economy start relatively low but increase dramatically as standards become more rigorous


Mixed reception to cafe

Mixed Reception to CAFE

  • Opponents say higher standards interfere with consumer choice, hurt economy, encourage drivers to keep older vehicles, and that new eco-friendly cars are too small and unsafe

  • Proponents say new standards are the catalyst for faster technological and industrial improvements


Obama s emissions policy

Obama’s Emissions Policy

  • By 2016, fuel efficiency in new cars will be increased to 34.1 mpg

  • This will save US 1.8 billion barrels of oil between 2012-2016

  • It will reduce emissions by the equivalent of 42 million cars over program’s lifetime

  • Consumers can expect to save up to $3,000 on fuel because of better fuel efficiency


Obama policy cont d

Obama Policy (cont’d)

  • This initiative will reduce America’s GHG emissions by about 900 million tons

  • Obama’s policy surpasses the 2007 CAFE law requiring 35 mpg by 2020

  • Although the most stringent to date, our standards still fall below China, Europe and Japan

  • Will require collaboration among many actors and may prove complicated to implement fully by the deadlines


Policy analysis

Policy Analysis

  • CAFE in 1975, but nothing else until now

  • ‘Small Truck Exception’

    • More bad than good?

  • New standards are ambitious and could be difficult to meet

  • All run by EPA

    • Lacking efficiency


Actors

Actors

  • Individuals who by hybrids

  • Companies that have hybrid fleets

  • Companies that support hybrid owners

  • California


Hybrid rebates

Hybrid Rebates

  • Between $1,000 and $4,000

  • Energy Policy Act of 2005

    • Limited businesses to 60,000 cars with rebate

  • Some states have individual rebates

  • Business Incentives

    • Insurance, Hotel Discounts, Parking


Google

Google

  • Gfleet

    • Plug in hybrids

    • Free for employees

    • Solar Panels


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

GE

  • Plans to purchase 25,000 electric vehicles

  • 12,000 Chevy Volts

    • Largest single vehicle commitment ever


Chevy volt

Chevy Volt

  • Plug-in Hybrid estimated to cost $1.50 a day for electricity (similar to household appliance)

  • Charges in 10 hrs (120V) or 4 hrs (240V)

  • Runs entirely on battery until it dies, then transfers to gas engine


Electric car

Electric Car

  • http://www.howstuffworks.com/electric-car.htm


Tesla motors

Tesla Motors

  • Founded in 2003 to prove that “electric cars could be awesome”

  • Two models: The Roadster and the Model S

  • Roadster

    • Completely electric

    • 245 miles per charge

    • 125 mph top speed

    • Battery life is 7yrs or 100,000 miles

    • Cost: $101,500


Tesla motors cont

Tesla Motors Cont.

  • Model S

    • Released in 2012

    • A sedan

    • 300 miles per charge

    • 120 mph top speed

    • Base price is 49,000


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

Tesla Roadster

Tesla Model S


Nissan leaf

Nissan Leaf

  • Between 62-100 miles per charge

  • Expected to maintain 80% of battery capacity after 5 yrs.

  • Cost: $25,280


Pros of electric cars

Pros of Electric Cars

  • No tailpipe emissions

    • Will drastically cut air pollution caused by autos

  • Would not have to pay for gas

    • Simply plug car in like you would a laptop or and ipod


Cons of electric cars

Cons of Electric Cars

  • Would increase demand for electric power

    • Current power grids would not be able to handle demand

  • Very expensive

  • Batteries do not allow for long road trips due to mile limitations


Current research

Current Research

  • Battery 500 project

    • IBM currently researching a battery whose charge would last 500 miles

    • Lithium Ion not the answer

    • Investigating Metal/Air batteries

    • Success in labs but still years away


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology (HFC Technology)

What is it?A cell that puts hydrogen through an electrochemical process that ultimately creates energy and electricity for the car to use.

The process used in this technology is similar to that in a battery, however would not need replaced and would never run out like batteries.


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

The Positives to HFC Technology

Emissions from hydrogen fuel cells, unlike engines we have today, is simply water. Which is not harmful to the environment and could even be reused.

Can be extracted from other energy sources such as coal. The coal is abundant and therefore extracting hydrogen from it could meet the demands that are needed to replace gasoline used for current cars.

It is important to note, the conversion efficiency, or how well it converts fuel into energy, is roughly 50% which is substantially higher than what one expects out of current cars and engines today


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

The Negatives of HFC Technology

Two main problems, very similar but not the same.

First: If somewhere along the lines fossil fuels are used in the energy conversion process for HFCs or even in the whole process to produce the hydrogen or something to carry it in, ultimately the emissions from cars won’t be completely eliminated only reduced, and maybe not reduced by much.

Secondly: If fuels we have today are used to produce the hydrogen or the technology for it then the molecules that contribute to environmental problems like Carbon Dioxide, will still be created by molecules used to produce hydrogen still escaping into the atmosphere.


Auto emissions and clean air motor vehicles and global warming

The Complete Energy Conversion Process

The HFC Energy Conversion Process


Ethanol

Ethanol

Advantages

  • High octane rating

  • Efficient


Ethanol1

Ethanol

Disadvantages

  • Low mileage

  • Price

  • Not convenient


Sugarcane vs corn

Sugarcane vs. Corn


Sugarcane vs corn1

Sugarcane vs. Corn

  • Price

  • Availability

  • Performance


Biodiesel

Biodiesel


Biodiesel1

Biodiesel

Advantages

  • Low emissions

  • Efficient

  • No engine modification


Biodiesel2

Biodiesel

Disadvantages

  • Mileage

  • Hard to produce

  • Availability


The end

THE END…


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