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Nuclear Power Plants

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1. Nuclear Power Plants

2. History of nuclear power 1938? Scientists study Uranium nucleus 1941 ? Manhattan Project begins 1942 ? Controlled nuclear chain reaction 1945 ? U.S. uses two atomic bombs on Japan 1949 ? Soviets develop atomic bomb 1952 ? U.S. tests hydrogen bomb 1955 ? First U.S. nuclear submarine

3. The energy in one pound of highly enriched Uranium is comparable to that of one million gallons of gasoline. 17,000 as much energy in one pound of Uranium as in one pound of coal. Economic advantages

4. Emissions Free Nuclear energy annually prevents 5.1 million tons of sulfur 2.4 million tons of nitrogen oxide 164 metric tons of carbon

5. Nuclear Energy Powers 1 in 5 U.S. Homes and Businesses Nuclear power plants produce electricity for one of every five homes and businesses and are America?s largest source of clean air energy. In a nuclear plant, uranium?in the form of pellets about the size of a finger tip?is the fuel that heats water, or a gas with some plant designs, to create the steam. Nuclear power plants produce electricity for one of every five homes and businesses and are America?s largest source of clean air energy. In a nuclear plant, uranium?in the form of pellets about the size of a finger tip?is the fuel that heats water, or a gas with some plant designs, to create the steam.

6. States with nuclear power plant(s)

7. Nuclear power around the globe 17% of world?s electricity from nuclear power U.S. about 20% (2nd largest source) 431 nuclear plants in 31 countries 103 of them in the U.S. Built none since 1970s (Wisconsin as leader).

8. Countries Generating Most Nuclear Power

9. Nuclear Power Plant Turbine and Generator All steam-electric power plants?nuclear, coal, gas and oil?run according to the same principles. Water is boiled to make steam. The steam is used to drive a turbine. The blades of the turbine spin the shaft of a generator. Inside the generator, coils of wire and magnetic fields interact?and electricity is created. All steam-electric power plants?nuclear, coal, gas and oil?run according to the same principles. Water is boiled to make steam. The steam is used to drive a turbine. The blades of the turbine spin the shaft of a generator. Inside the generator, coils of wire and magnetic fields interact?and electricity is created.

10. Nuclear fuel cycle Uranium mining and milling Conversion and enrichment Fuel rod fabrication POWER REACTOR Reprocessing, or Radioactive waste disposal Low-level in commercial facilities High level at plants or underground repository

11. Uranium Is Mined and Refined Uranium is mined from the earth through surface, underground, or solution mining. In the United States, nearly all uranium is solution mined. A solution is injected into the uranium ore deposit then pumped out. The uranium then is separated from the solution. Uranium also is obtained as a by-product in the production of phosphate, sulfur, vanadium, copper and gold. After the uranium is mined, it must be refined through further processing. Uranium is mined from the earth through surface, underground, or solution mining. In the United States, nearly all uranium is solution mined. A solution is injected into the uranium ore deposit then pumped out. The uranium then is separated from the solution. Uranium also is obtained as a by-product in the production of phosphate, sulfur, vanadium, copper and gold. After the uranium is mined, it must be refined through further processing.

12. Front end: Uranium mining and milling

13. Uranium enrichment U-235 Fissionable at 3% Weapons grade at 90% U-238 More stable Plutonium-239 Created from U-238; highly radioactive

14. Radioactivity of plutonium Life span of least 240,000 years Last Ice Age glaciation was 10,000 years ago Neanderthal Man died out 30,000 years ago

15. Enrichment Concentrates the Uranium Isotope These are uranium centrifuges?one method of enriching uranium. Uranium contains two kinds?or isotopes?of uranium. The enrichment process concentrates the isotope that is most useful in energy production. Enriched uranium will operate a nuclear power plant, but is not concentrated sufficiently to make a nuclear bomb. These are uranium centrifuges?one method of enriching uranium. Uranium contains two kinds?or isotopes?of uranium. The enrichment process concentrates the isotope that is most useful in energy production. Enriched uranium will operate a nuclear power plant, but is not concentrated sufficiently to make a nuclear bomb.

16. Uranium Is Encased in Solid Ceramic Pellets Finally, the uranium hexafluoride is shipped to a fuel fabricator, where it is manufactured into solid ceramic pellets, about the size of the end of a finger. Finally, the uranium hexafluoride is shipped to a fuel fabricator, where it is manufactured into solid ceramic pellets, about the size of the end of a finger.

17. Fuel Rods Filled With Pellets Are Grouped Into Fuel Assemblies The pellets are inserted into long metal tubes called fuel rods. The fuel rods are made of zirconium?which resists heat, radiation and corrosion. The rods are bundled together into fuel assemblies, which are placed in the reactor.The pellets are inserted into long metal tubes called fuel rods. The fuel rods are made of zirconium?which resists heat, radiation and corrosion. The rods are bundled together into fuel assemblies, which are placed in the reactor.

18. Nuclear Energy Comes From Fission When a nuclear power plant starts up, neutrons are released. When they strike the uranium atoms in the fuel pellets, the atoms split?or fission.When a nuclear power plant starts up, neutrons are released. When they strike the uranium atoms in the fuel pellets, the atoms split?or fission.

19. Splitting Atoms Releases Neutrons, Making Heat The splitting?or fissioning?of the atoms then releases neutrons, along with energy in the form of heat. The splitting?or fissioning?of the atoms then releases neutrons, along with energy in the form of heat.

20. Heat Produces Steam, Generating Electricity This process continues in a chain reaction, producing a great deal of heat. It is this process?creating heat through the splitting of atoms?that turns water to steam. The steam is moved from the reactor to turn the turbine-generator, which makes electricity. All radioactive water stays within the reactor system and is not released into the environment. This process continues in a chain reaction, producing a great deal of heat. It is this process?creating heat through the splitting of atoms?that turns water to steam. The steam is moved from the reactor to turn the turbine-generator, which makes electricity. All radioactive water stays within the reactor system and is not released into the environment.

21. Controlling the Chain Reaction Plant operators can control the chain reaction. Long rods are inserted among the fuel assemblies. These "control rods" are made to absorb neutrons, so the neutrons can no longer hit atoms and make them split. To speed up the chain reaction, plant operators withdraw the control rods, either partially or fully. To slow it, they insert the control rods. Plant operators can control the chain reaction. Long rods are inserted among the fuel assemblies. These "control rods" are made to absorb neutrons, so the neutrons can no longer hit atoms and make them split. To speed up the chain reaction, plant operators withdraw the control rods, either partially or fully. To slow it, they insert the control rods.

22. Nuclear Reactor Process 3% enriched Uranium pellets formed into rods, which are formed into bundles Bundles submerged in water coolant inside pressure vessel, with control rods. Bundles must be SUPERCRITICAL; will overheat and melt if no control rods. Reaction converts water to steam, which powers steam turbine

23. Boiling Water Reactor There are two kinds of nuclear power plants in the United States?boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. Inside a boiling water reactor, heat from the chain reaction boils the water and turns it to steam. The steam is piped from the reactor vessel directly to the turbine. The steam turns the turbine's propeller-like blades, which spins the shaft of a huge generator. Inside the generator, coils of wire and magnetic fields interact?and electricity is created. There are two kinds of nuclear power plants in the United States?boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. Inside a boiling water reactor, heat from the chain reaction boils the water and turns it to steam. The steam is piped from the reactor vessel directly to the turbine. The steam turns the turbine's propeller-like blades, which spins the shaft of a huge generator. Inside the generator, coils of wire and magnetic fields interact?and electricity is created.

24. Pressurized Water Reactor In the pressurized water reactor, water is heated by the nuclear fuel, but is kept under pressure in the pressure vessel, so it will not boil. The water inside the pressure vessel is piped through separate tubing to a steam generator. The steam generator acts like a heat exchanger. There is a second supply of water inside the steam generator. Heated by the water from the pressure vessel, it boils to make steam for the turbine. Other reactor designs, which use helium gas rather than water to produce steam, are also under development and may eventually be built in the United States.In the pressurized water reactor, water is heated by the nuclear fuel, but is kept under pressure in the pressure vessel, so it will not boil. The water inside the pressure vessel is piped through separate tubing to a steam generator. The steam generator acts like a heat exchanger. There is a second supply of water inside the steam generator. Heated by the water from the pressure vessel, it boils to make steam for the turbine. Other reactor designs, which use helium gas rather than water to produce steam, are also under development and may eventually be built in the United States.

25. Safety Is Engineered Into Reactor Designs Nuclear power plants use a series of physical barriers to make sure radioactive material cannot escape. In today?s water-cooled reactors, the first barrier is the fuel itself: the solid ceramic uranium pellets. Most of the radioactive by-products of the fission process remain inside the pellets. The pellets are sealed in zirconium rods, 12 feet long and half an inch in diameter. The fuel rods are placed inside a large steel reactor vessel, with walls 8 inches thick. The vessel is surrounded by 3 feet of concrete shielding. At most plants, a leak-tight steel liner covers the inside walls of the containment building. The containment building is a massive, reinforced concrete structure with walls 4 feet thick.Nuclear power plants use a series of physical barriers to make sure radioactive material cannot escape. In today?s water-cooled reactors, the first barrier is the fuel itself: the solid ceramic uranium pellets. Most of the radioactive by-products of the fission process remain inside the pellets. The pellets are sealed in zirconium rods, 12 feet long and half an inch in diameter. The fuel rods are placed inside a large steel reactor vessel, with walls 8 inches thick. The vessel is surrounded by 3 feet of concrete shielding. At most plants, a leak-tight steel liner covers the inside walls of the containment building. The containment building is a massive, reinforced concrete structure with walls 4 feet thick.

26. Early knowledge of risks 1964 Atomic Energy Commission report on possible reactor accident 45,000 dead 100,000 injured $17 billion in damages Area the size of Pennsylvania contaminated

27. Cancers and leukemia among workers Fires and mass exposure. Karen Silkwood at Oklahoma fabrication plant. Risk of theft of bomb material. Risks of enrichment and fuel fabrication

28. Oops?


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