exascale signal processing for millimeter wavelength radio interferometers
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Exascale Signal Processing for Millimeter-Wavelength Radio Interferometers. David Hawkins [email protected] My Ulterior Motive. I don’t want Exascale Problems! I want Exascale Solutions! Seriously …

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Presentation Transcript
my ulterior motive
My Ulterior Motive
  • I don’t want Exascale Problems!
  • I want Exascale Solutions!
  • Seriously …
    • I’m interested in helping test/deploy any hardware that can be integrated with our systems
    • I’m all for re-using/re-purposing solutions
      • Larry’s ASICs - version 1.0 coming soon, right? 
      • Mike’s GPUs
what systems
What Systems?

(at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory)

CARMA

  • 23 Dual-Polarization Antenna
  • 30GHz, 100GHz, 300GHz Signals

LWA-OVRO

  • 256 Dual-Polarization Dipoles
  • 28MHz to 88MHz Signals

3

carma s big data problem
CARMA’s “Big Data” Problem
  • CARMA
    • 23 dual-polarization antennas
    • 1035 baselines
  • Current requirements: (not yet met!)
    • Double-sideband receivers
    • 8GHz receiver IF (processed as 1 x 10GHz band)
    • 2-pol x 23-ant x 10GHz = 460GHz bandwidth
    • 46 x 4-bit x 20GHz ADCs= 3680Tbps (460GB/s)
    • 368 x 10Gbps links = 92 x 40Gbps links
    • 46 x 4-bit 20GHz ADCs
  • “Coming soon”:
    • Sideband-separating receivers
    • 16GHz per sideband (processed as 2 x 10GHz bands)
    • 2-sb x 2-bands x 2-pol x 23-ant x 10GHz = 1840GHz BW
    • 4 x 3680Tbps = 14720Tbps (1840GB/s)
    • 4 x 92 = 368 40Gbps links
    • 184 x 4-bit 20GHz ADCs
double sideband vs sideband separating
Double-Sideband vs Sideband-Separating

Sideband-separating removes the sky noise, but produces twice as many analog signals

need at least 16x larger backend
Need at least 16x larger backend!!

2GHz 23-antenna Single-Polarization

Spectral Correlator

Wideband Correlator

8 bands x 15-telescopes single-pol

4 bands x 23-telescopes single-pol

4 bands x 15-telescopes dual-pol

16 bands x 8-telescopes

single-pol x fixed

500MHz bandwidth

20ghz adc prototype 1
20GHz ADC Prototype #1
  • 4-bits at 20Gbps ADC
    • 8-bits at 10Gbps output data
  • Tested at 10GSps
    • 8-bits at 5Gbps to the FPGA
  • ADC performance verified
  • ADC-to-FPGA synchronization issue (eventual data corruption)
  • New board with “more features” required to isolate the issue
adc to fpga transceiver interface
ADC-to-FPGA Transceiver Interface

Output data modulation is required for lane synchronization and zero bias

The 10Gbps lanes are NOT as “simple” as 10GbE links!

hittite adc xor modulation
Hittite ADC XOR Modulation
  • XOR input setup/hold
    • 100ps period XOR pattern
    • Must meet setup/hold of the 20GHz clock
    • How can such a stable XOR pattern be generated?
    • Use a 10GbE PHY configured in PRBS pattern mode! (PRBS = pseudo-random binary sequence)
20ghz adc prototype 2
20GHz ADC Prototype #2
  • 20GHz clock, 10Gbps output
  • 10GHz clock, 5Gbps output
  • PRBS pattern generator integrated on the PCB
  • On-board power supplies and output data fanout/buffering isolates the ADC
  • FPGA independent
  • Currently being tested
    • Solder on the ADC pads 
receiver signal processing
Receiver Signal Processing
  • 10GHz band
    • Input data rate = 8 x 10Gbps
    • Output data rate = 32 x 2.5Gbps (higher once encoded)
  • Overlapped bands allows
    • Full coarse frequency coverage
    • High-resolution spectral bands(FFX correlator)
lwa ovro future adc evaluation
LWA-OVRO (Future) ADC Evaluation

28MHz to 88MHz

  • Option 1:
    • ~200MHz sample rate
    • 8192-point FFT (100MHz/4096-channels = 24kHz resolution)
    • Retain 28MHz to 88MHz channels (2458 channels)
  • Option 2:
    • 256MHz sample rate
    • Demodulate to complex-valued baseband
    • Decimate-by-4 (RFI channels eliminated)
    • 2048-point FFT (64MHz/2048-channels = 31kHz resolution)
  • Which is better? => To be determined
    • Option 1 requires a full-precision FFT to retain RFI dynamic range
    • Option 2 can re-quantize to fewer bits after RFI removal
pfb low pass filter design
PFB Low-pass Filter Design

Low-pass

with sinc

“ringing”

Kaiser

Windowed

Response

summary
Summary
  • What’s next?
    • New 20GHz ADC boards to test next week
    • Confirm that PRBS modulation works!
    • 10GHz PFB implementation
  • Build-out CARMA’s double-sideband system
    • 46 x ADCs
    • Filter using FPGAs
    • Correlate using FPGAs
  • CARMA sideband-separating system
    • Get a lot more ADCs!
    • Re-use the Correlator FPGAs as Filter FPGAs
    • Replace the correlator with Larry’s ASICs or Mikes GPUs???
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