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Basic Processes in Visual Perception. What is perception good for?. We often receive incomplete information through our senses. Information can be highly ambiguous

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Basic processes in visual perception

Basic Processes in Visual Perception


What is perception good for
What is perception good for?

  • We often receive incomplete information through our senses. Information can be highly ambiguous

  • Perceptual system must resolve ambiguities by drawing inferences from a large set of perceptual cues and conceptual knowledge of the world


Mapping of visual fields
Mapping of Visual Fields

Left visual field 

right visual cortex

Right visual field  left visual cortex


The retina geniculate striate system
The Retina-geniculate-striate System

  • The parvocellular (or P) pathway

    • Sensitive to color and to fine detail

    • Most of its input comes from cones

  • The magnocellular (or M) pathway

    • Most sensitive to information about movement

    • Most of its input comes from rods


A very simplified illustration of the pathways and brain areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.


Are there behavioral consequences for areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

individual differences in brain anatomy?


Primary and secondary visual cortex v1 and v2
Primary and Secondary Visual Cortex (V1 and V2) areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

  • Retinotopic maps

  • Receptive fields:

    • On-off cells; Off-on cells

    • Simple cells

  • Lateral inhibition


Retinotopic maps in v1
Retinotopic maps in V1 areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

  • Retinotopic mapping: locations on retina are mapped to cortex in orderly fashion. Note: more of visual cortex is dedicated to foveal vision

Response in monkey primary visual cortex (V1) measured by radio-active tracers

Stimulus pattern

Tootell, R. B., M. S. Silverman, et al. Science (1982)


Stimulus areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

Cortical Mapping:

Left Hemisphere

Cortical Mapping:

Right Hemisphere


Revealing retinotopic maps with fmri
Revealing retinotopic maps with fMRI areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

From: Geoff Boynton, SALK institute


Revealing retinotopic maps with fmri1
Revealing retinotopic maps with fMRI areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

From: Geoff Boynton, SALK institute


Measuring neural activity
Measuring Neural Activity areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.


Receptive fields
Receptive Fields areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

  • The receptive field (RF) of a neuron is the area of retina cells that trigger activity of that neuron

  • On-off cells and off-on cells:


On off cell
On-off cell areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

Video

STIMULUS RESPONSE APPROX. FIRING RATE

4

25

5

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LGN On cell:

responses

as shown on left

LGN Off cell

opposite response pattern


Simple cells bar detectors
Simple Cells (bar detectors) areas involved in vision. There is much more interconnectivity within the brain (VI onwards) than is shown, and there are additional (not shown) brain areas involved in vision.

Video:


A wiring diagram for building simple cells out of on off cells
A wiring diagram for building simple cells out of on-off cells

Hierarchical organization of the brain: by aggregating responses over several on-off cells, the brain can detect more complicated features (e.g. bars and edges)



Lateral inhibition

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Lateral Inhibition

  • Lateral inhibition sets up competition between neurons so that if one neuron becomes adept at responding to a pattern, it inhibits other neurons from doing so.

Light:

On-Off Cells with lateral inhibition:

Response

 Edge detection

DEMO APPLETS:

1) http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/%7Ebbutoi/latinh.html

2) http://www.psychology.mcmaster.ca/4i03/demos/lateral-demo.html


Functional specialization theory zeki
Functional Specialization Theory (Zeki) cells

  • Spatially different areas are functionally specialized for processing visual attributes such as shape, color, orientation, and direction of motion

  • Examples:

    • V1 and V2

      • Early stage of visual perception

    • V3 and V3A

      • Form, especially the shapes of objects in motion

    • V4

      • Responsive to colour

    • V5

      • Visual motion


Evidence for functional specialization
Evidence for Functional Specialization cells

  • Single-cell recording

  • Patient data:

    • Achromatopsia (damage to V4)

    • Akinetopsia (damage to V5 or MT)


Specialization for form processing in IT (Inferotemporal-Cortex)

Kobatake & Tanaka, 1994


There is some evidence for specialization to face processing
There is some evidence for specialization to face processing (Inferotemporal-Cortex)

Bruce, Desimone & Gross (1981)


The percentage of cells in six different visual cortical areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.


Sensory binding problem
Sensory Binding Problem areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.

  • If spatially different areas are functionally specialized for processing visual attributes such as shape, color, orientation, and direction of motion….

  • then how does the brain then “bind” together the sensory attributes of an object to construct a unified perception of the object? Binding Problem


Binding Problem areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.


Alternative view hierarchical model
Alternative View: Hierarchical Model areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.

Lennie (1998):

  • Visual processing is hierarchical

  • Areas serve multiple functions (except for MT)


Hierarchical organization1
Hierarchical Organization areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.


What and where or what and how systems
“What and Where” or areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.“What and How” Systems

  • Mishkin and Ungerleider (1982)

    • Object perception (whatis it?)

      • Ventral pathway running from the primary visual area in the cortex to the inferior temporal cortex

    • Spatial perception (whereis it?)

      • There is a dorsal pathway running from the primary visual area in the cortex to the posterior parietal cortex


Perception action model
Perception–Action Model areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.

  • Milner and Goodale (1995, 1998)

    • Vision for perception

      • Based on the ventral pathway

      • Long-lasting, viewpoint-independent representations

    • Vision for action

      • Based on the dorsal pathway

      • Short lasting, viewpoint-dependent representations


Evidence
Evidence areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.

  • Double dissociation: some patients would show reasonably intact vision for perception but severely impaired vision for action, and others would show the opposite pattern

    • Optic ataxia

    • Visual agnosia


Differential sensitivity to visual illusions
Differential Sensitivity to Visual Illusions areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.

Performance on a 3-D version of the Müller-Lyer illusion as a function of task (grasping vs. matching) and type of stimulus (ingoing fins vs. outgoing fins).

Haart et al. (1999).


Appropriate grasping requires the retrieval of object knowledge from long term memory
Appropriate grasping requires the areas responding selectively to orientation, direction of motion, disparity, and colour.retrieval of object knowledge from long-term memory

Mean percentages of objects grasped appropriately in the control (grasping only), spatial imagery, and paired associate learning conditions.

Creem and Proffitt (2001b).


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