Synchronization issues in meic
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 18

Synchronization Issues in MEIC PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Synchronization Issues in MEIC. Andrew Hutton, Slava Derbenev and Yuhong Zhang MEIC Ion Complex Design Mini-Workshop Jan. 27 & 28, 2011. The Problem. Electrons travel at the speed of light Protons and ions are slower There are three areas that need to be addressed

Download Presentation

Synchronization Issues in MEIC

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Synchronization issues in meic

Synchronization Issues in MEIC

Andrew Hutton, SlavaDerbenev

and Yuhong Zhang

MEIC Ion Complex Design Mini-Workshop

Jan. 27 & 28, 2011

The problem

The Problem

  • Electrons travel at the speed of light

  • Protons and ions are slower

  • There are three areas that need to be addressed

    • In collider ring  matching electron & ion beams at multiple IPs

    • During acceleration

    • Cooling  matching ion beam and cooling electron beam

  • Assumptions

    • MEIC collider ring circumference is around 1 km

    • Large booster (LEIC) is the same circumference as MEIC

    • Electron ring is the same circumference as MEIC

    • Superconducting RF systems have limited frequency swing

Harmonic numbers

Harmonic Numbers

  • Assuming circumference of the MEIC collider ring is about 1 km

  • For an RF frequency of 1497 MHz

    • The best harmonic number is 4860 = 2x2x3x3x3x3x3x5

    • Corresponds to a circumference of 971.98 meter

  • For an RF Frequency of 748.5 MHz

    • The harmonic number is 2430

  • For an RF Frequency of 499 MHz

    • The harmonic number is 1620

Orbit differences in meic

Orbit Differences in MEIC

  • MEIC design parameters

    Proton energy 20 to 60 GeVBunch repetition rate 748.5 MHz

    Deuteron energy 10 to 30 GeV/uCollider ring circumference ~1000 m

    Lead energy 7.9 to 23.8 GeV/u Harmonic number2500

  • Orbit difference from 1000 m ring @ 60 GeV proton design point

    proton 60 GeVdesign point

    20 GeV -97.9 cm  2.44 bunch spacing  2 unit of HN

    deuteron: 30 GeV/u  -36.7 cm  0.92 bunch spacing  1 unit of HN

    10 GeV/u  -429 cm  10.7 bunch spacing  11 unit of HN

    Lead: 23.8 GeV/u  -65.7 cm  1.64 bunch spacing  2 unit of HN

    7.9 GeV/u  -692cm  17.3 bunch spacing  17 unit of HN

  • MEIC Circulator Cooler

    Energy range 4.3 to 32.7 MeVBunch repetition rate 748.5 MHz

    γ 8.4 to 63.9Circulator ring circumference ~ 50 m

    β 0.9929 to 0.9999 Harmonic number125

    Orbit difference

    cooling proton@20 GeV/u -4.9 cm  0.1 wavelength  no change of HN

    cooling lead@7.9 GeV/u -35 cm  0.86 wavelength  1 unit of HN

Harmonic number vs proton energy

Harmonic Number vs. Proton Energy

  • The proton energy that corresponds to a harmonic number of 1 less than the nominal is

    • 43.32 GeV for 1497 MHz

    • 31.77 GeV for 748.5 MHz

    • 25.77 GeV for 499 MHz

  • For 750 MHz, change of harmonic numbers is not a viable solution for the 20 – 60 GeV energy range

    • It is a viable solution at lower energies

Two interaction regions

Two Interaction Regions

  • The two Interaction Regions are 180°apart for both beams in the present configuration

    • Arcs are equal and straight sections are equal

      • Offsetting the beam in the Arcs would work

    • Putting two Interaction Regions in a single straight will not work without an additional variable chicane

      • Chicane is complicated in this region

        • Magnet offset ~1 meter for 2 mm path length change

  • MEIC can have up to two interaction regions

    • Must be equidistant in ring

  • There can be one more interaction region in LEIC

Change ion ring path length

Change Ion Ring Path Length

  • It is possible to change the path length in the ion ring

    • For one Interaction Point, need +/- 20 cm

    • For two Interaction Points, need +/- 40 cm

  • If path length is created in the arcs

    • 20 cm corresponds to an offset of about ±25 mm

    • 40 cm corresponds to an offset of about ±50 mm

  • Increasing the bore of a 6 Tesla magnet by 30 mm is expensive!

    • 60 mm may be prohibitive

  • Need to mount all the magnets on movers

    • Unpleasant, but possibly affordable

Three ring collider proposal

Three Ring Collider Proposal

  • The MEIC ring should be used to cover the higher energies

    • RF frequency will be fixed

    • Electron ring and ion ring will use SRF cavities

    • Ion ring magnets will be on movers to accommodate velocity change

  • The LEIC ring will be used to cover lower energies

    • The LEIC ring will need variable RF frequency

      • Ion ring will require RF cavities that can span a wide frequency range

      • Could be a sub-harmonic of MEIC ring

        • Injected bunch trains would be interleaved using an RF separator

Alternate solution change of electron path rf frequency

Alternate Solution: Change of Electron Path & RF Frequency

The scheme does not require change of the ion orbit which is considered far more difficult to realize for SC magnets. It rather varies

  • RF frequency(less than ±10-3)

  • Ion ring harmonic number

  • Electron orbit (less than half wavelength for one IP

    and one wavelength for two IPs)

  • Circulator cooler ring circumference (less than half bunch spacing)

Meic with one ip

Change of ring radius

MEIC with One IP

Synchronization issues in meic

MEIC with 2 IPs (Half Ring Apart)

Harmonic number has to be changed by unit of 2

Change of collision frequency electron ring

Change of Collision Frequency & Electron Ring

One IP

Two IPs

Electron cooling

Electron Cooling

  • Electron cooling requires exact matching of the electron and ion velocities

  • The time between adjacent buckets is 1/frequency

    • Therefore RF frequencies must also be matched

  • In the MEIC ring, if the RF frequency is constant (749.5 MHz) so the same electron cooling system will work at all energies

    • Fixed frequency SRF cavities will work for energy recovery of the electron beam used for cooling

Circulator ring circumference

Circulator Ring Circumference

  • The length of the circulator ring will need to be changed to accommodate different electron velocities

    • The maximum change will be 1/hion

    • The circumference change in the circulator ring is heλ/hion

  • Numerical example

    • MEIC is ~900 metres long, hion = 4500

    • Circulator ring is ~20 meters long, he = 100

    • Circulator ring must change circumference by 4.5 mm for a one wavelength change in MEIC circumference

    • This is a radius change of ~0.7 mm

  • This is a small number so it can easily be accommodated within the circulator ring magnet bore

Leic electron cooling

LEIC Electron Cooling

  • The RF frequency in the LEIC ion ring has to change

    • The circumference change in the circulator ring can be accommodated within the magnet bore

  • The RF frequency in the electron cooling system has to change

  • The RF frequency of the electron linac must change

    • SRF cavities will not work

  • Electron energy is low

    • Propose no energy recovery for the electron beam

    • Extend the number of turns that the electron beam is in the circulator ring

  • Electron cooling would then be available throughout the acceleration cycle

Circulator ring

Circulator Ring

  • Assume racetrack layout as proposed in the ZDR

    • Electron cooling occurs on one straight section

    • Electron beam injected/extracted on opposite straight section

  • Straight sections must have zero dispersion

    • If injected beam is on axis, it will be on axis for cooling

    • Injection orbit is independent of beam energy

  • However, correct longitudinal position is not guaranteed by good injection orbit

    • Requires Arcs to be achromatic, but not isochronous

    • Arc energy setting must lead beam energy during ramp so path length shortens to maintain correct timing

Clearing gaps

Clearing Gaps

  • Colliders usually have one (or more) gaps in the bunch train

    • Ion clearing in electron beams

    • Electron cloud clearing in proton or positive ion beams

    • Required for aborting high power beams

  • MEIC will have gaps, probably ~10% of the circumference

    • Will reduce MEIC luminosity by ~10%

      • RF frequencies are the same so gaps are synchronous

  • LEIC will have gaps, also about 10% of the circumference

    • Will reduce LEIC luminosity by at least 20%

      • Gaps are asynchronous

      • Could increase beam-beam effects

        • Needs study

Impact of clearing gaps

Impact of Clearing Gaps

  • The clearing gaps impact the RF systems

  • Stored energy in the cavities changes along the bunch train

    • Bunch energy changes along the bunch train

    • Transverse position in regions of non-zero dispersion changes along the bunch train

    • Polarization precession changes along the bunch train

  • Effect minimized with RF systems with high stored energy

    • SRF cavities

    • Copper cavities with storage cavities

      • It is difficult to vary the frequency of both types of cavity

  • Login