Crime and justice in america l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 36

CRIME AND JUSTICE IN AMERICA PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 77 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

CRIME AND JUSTICE IN AMERICA. Crime in America Defining crime How much crime is there? Criminal victimization Crime and justice as public policy issues. Crime in America. Crime in American History and trends in the level of crime Crime in America compared to other industrialized countries.

Download Presentation

CRIME AND JUSTICE IN AMERICA

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Crime and justice in america l.jpg

CRIME AND JUSTICE IN AMERICA

  • Crime in America

  • Defining crime

  • How much crime is there?

  • Criminal victimization

  • Crime and justice as public policy issues


Crime in america l.jpg

Crime in America

  • Crime in American History and trends in the level of crime

  • Crime in America compared to other industrialized countries


Defining crime l.jpg

Defining Crime

  • What is crime?

  • Sources of definitions of crime

    • Who makes the decisions?

    • Consensus model

    • Conflict model


Crime defined l.jpg

Crime Defined

  • A specific act of commission or omission in violation of the law for which a punishment is prescribed.


Consensus model l.jpg

Consensus Model

  • Law reflects the need for order.

  • Law results from a consensus on widely shared values in society.

  • Law is an impartial system to protect the public.

  • Law provides neutral means of resolving disputes.


Conflict model l.jpg

Conflict Model

• Politically powerful groups influence the content of criminal law.

• “Mala prohibita” offenses are prohibited by government but not wrong in themselves. (Cf. “mala in se” – wrong in themselves).

• Harsh penalties are sometimes enforced on the poor or disadvantaged while the powerful are given lighter sentences.


Types of crime l.jpg

Types of Crime

  • Level of crime

    • Misdemeanor

    • Felony

  • Categories of crime

    • Occupational crime

    • Organized crime

    • Visible crime

    • Crimes without victims

    • Political crimes


Types of occupational crime l.jpg

Types of Occupational Crime

  • Committed in the context of legal business or profession:

- For the benefit of the employing organization.

- Through the exercise of government authority.

- Professional crimes by doctors, lawyers or stockbrokers.

- Employee theft, false claims or embezzlement.


Organized crime l.jpg

Organized Crime

  • A framework for the perpetuation of criminal acts - usually in fields such as gambling, drugs, and prostitution - providing illegal services that are in great demand.


Visible crime street crime l.jpg

Visible Crime (street crime)

  • Offenses against persons and property committed primarily by members of the lower class.

  • Most upsetting to the public.


Crimes without victims l.jpg

Crimes Without Victims

Offenses involving a willing and private exchange of illegal goods and services that are in strong demand. Participants do not feel they are being harmed, but these crimes are prosecuted on the ground that society as a whole is injured. Includes activities such as:

  • Gambling

  • Drug Sales and Use

  • Prostitution


Political crimes l.jpg

Political Crimes

  • Acts that constitute a threat against the state such as treason, sedition (rebellion), or espionage.


Cybercrime l.jpg

Cybercrime

  • Use of computers and internet

  • Various different types

    • Information theft

    • Vice

    • Embezzlement

    • “Vandalism” (i.e. hacking)


How much crime is there l.jpg

How much crime is there?

  • Measuring crime

  • Uniform crime reports

  • National crime victimization survey

  • Trends in crime


How is crime l.jpg

How is Crime….

?

Measured?

Defined?

Counted?


Major uniform crime report index crime groups l.jpg

Major Uniform Crime Report Index Crime Groups

VIOLENT CRIMENON-VIOLENT CRIME

  • Murder and non-negligent manslaughter

  • Aggravated assault

  • Forcible rape

  • Robbery

*Burglary

*Larceny/theft

*Motor vehicle theft

*Arson


Assessment of uniform crime reports l.jpg

Assessment of Uniform Crime Reports

  • Not all crime is reported.

  • Administrative errors in recording data:

    • Interpreting UCR definitions.

    • Systematic counting errors.

    • Deliberately altered or manipulated data.

  • Methodological problems.


Revising the ucr nibrs l.jpg

Revising the UCR - NIBRS

  • Definitions of crimes will be revised.

  • More crimes will be included in each category.

  • Other changes to make the data more accurate.

UCR


National crime victim survey l.jpg

National Crime Victim Survey

  • Data is gathered by the Bureau of Census and compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics.

  • Sample includes 100,000 people in 50,000 households.

  • Respondents are over the age of 12.

  • Respondents queried every six months about household and personal victimizations.


Ncvs crimes l.jpg

NCVS Crimes

Rape

Robbery (personal)

Assault (aggravated and simple)

Household burglary

Larceny (personal and household)

Motor vehicle theft


Comparison ucr vs ncvs l.jpg

Comparison – UCR vs. NCVS

UCR

NCVS

Scope - Both reported and

unreported to police. Nation

as a whole.

Collection Method -

Survey Interview

Kinds of Information-

Details about victims and

crimes - reported and unreported. Use of weapons,

injuries, economic effects.

Sponsor - Bureau of

Justice Statistics.

Scope - Crimes reported to

the police in most jurisdictions

Collection Method - Police

departments and FBI

Kinds of Information - Offense

counts; crime clearances; persons

arrested, persons charged;

officers killed, characteristics

of homicide victims.

Sponsor - FBI


Crime trends 1973 2001 l.jpg

Crime Trends, 1973-2001


Explaining crime trends l.jpg

Explaining Crime Trends

Violent Crime

Crime in General

  • Crime rates are not steadily rising.

  • Most property crimes have dropped.

  • Violent crime has dropped since 1993.

  • Males 16-24 are the most crime prone group.


Youth population and crime l.jpg

Youth Population and Crime


Crime victimization l.jpg

CRIME VICTIMIZATION

  • Victimology

  • Who is victimized?

  • The impact of crime

  • Fear of crime

  • Victims in the criminal justice system


Victimology the study of victims l.jpg

Victimology – the study of victims

  • Emerged in the 1950s

  • Change in the way that we study crime

  • New focus

    • Who is victimized?

    • Impact of crime

    • Role of victims in Criminal Justice process


Who are the victims of crime l.jpg

Who are the victims of crime?

Where Does Crime Take Place?

Module 2 - 11


Relative victimization rates l.jpg

Relative victimization rates


Intra vs inter racial crime l.jpg

Intra vs. Inter racial crime


Why some people are victims l.jpg

Why some people are victims


The impact of crime l.jpg

The Impact of Crime

  • Economic costs

  • Psychological and social costs

  • Criminal justice system operating costs


Fear of crime l.jpg

Fear of Crime

  • Limits freedom

  • Sometimes out of proportion to actual risk

  • Increasing


Victims in the criminal justice system l.jpg

Victims in the Criminal Justice system

  • Victims often overlooked

  • System becoming more sensitive

  • Role of victims in crime


Women and crime l.jpg

Women and Crime

  • Little early research

  • New theories

  • Increasingly arrested


Crime and justice as public policy issues l.jpg

Crime and Justice as Public Policy Issues

  • Maintaining order vs. protecting rights

  • Differing perspectives on the causes of crime and its cures


  • Login