Biosecurity on the horse farm
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Biosecurity on the Horse Farm. ANSC 420 – Critical Thinking in Animal Science March 24, 2010 Erin D. Pittman, MS, PAS. Oversight?. Why bother?. How do we control disease?. Vaccinations Farm Management. How it Works. Infection Control Plan Avoid or minimize exposure

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Biosecurity on the Horse Farm

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Biosecurity on the Horse Farm

ANSC 420 – Critical Thinking in Animal Science

March 24, 2010

Erin D. Pittman, MS, PAS


Oversight?


Why bother?


How do we control disease?

  • Vaccinations

  • Farm Management


How it Works

  • Infection Control Plan

    • Avoid or minimize exposure

    • Optimize resistance

      • Vaccination

      • Optimize overall health care

      • Areas to consider

        • Nutrition and training/exercise schedule

        • Ventilation and airflow in stabling area

        • Insect control

      • Other

        • Example: “normal” gastrointestinal flora


Horse Lifestyles – Pasture Potatoes!


Breeding


Breeding


Showing, trail-riding and lessons


Transport


Risk of Disease

  • Varies by type of horse population!

  • Some horses predisposed to disease if exposed:

    • Foals, old horses

    • Problems with digestive function

    • Drug treatments

  • Situations can increase risk of exposure

    • Commingling with other horses

    • Exposure to insects


Before we talk “control…”

  • Do you recognize a sick vs. a healthy horse?


Vital Signs – Adult Horses


Controlling Infectious Diseases

  • Infection Control Plan

  • Avoid or minimize exposure

  • Optimize resistance

    • Vaccination

    • Optimize overall health care

    • Other


Avoiding/Minimizing Exposure

  • How are diseases transmitted?

    • Aerosol

    • Oral

    • Direct Contact

    • Fomites

    • Vector

    • Zoonotic

  • Limiting exposure must address all methods of diseasetransmission!


Examples and Methods of Exposure


Things to Consider – Hygiene and Sanitation

Where would you rather your horse be?


Hygiene and Sanitation - Facilities


Hygiene and Sanitation - Personal


Hygiene and Sanitation - Horse


Transmission - Aerosol


Transmission – Oral


Transmission – Direct Contact


Transmission - Fomites


Transmission - Vector


Transmission - Zoonotic


Equine Diseases


Equine Herpes Virus

  • “Rhino”

  • 9 documented strains

    • 5 affect domestic horses

    • EHV-1 and EHV-4 are most common and pathogenic

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Fever!

    • Malaise

    • Respiratory

    • Abortion

    • Neurologic


Equine Infectious Anemia

  • “Swam Fever”

  • Horses = natural host

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Severe depression

    • Weakness

    • Sudden onset of high fever

    • Anemia!

  • No treatment available!

  • Detection = Coggins Test


Coggins Test


Equine Viral Arteritis

  • EVA

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Respiratory Infection

    • Abortion

    • Subfertility (stallions)

    • Limb and Scrotal Edema

    • Skin reaction


Influenza

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Harsh, dry cough

    • Loss of appetite

    • Depression

    • Watery nasal discharge

  • Can lead to pneumonia


Eastern, Western, Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyeltis

  • ZOONOTIC DISEASES!

  • High fatality rates

    • Eastern > Venezuelan > Western

  • Neurological Signs


Vesicular Stomatitis

  • Can be transmitted between cattle/pigs and horses

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Ulceration of mucosa and coronary band

    • Crusting lesions of sheath, abdomen

  • Reportable Disease


Rabies

  • ZOONOTIC DISEASE

  • Raccoon strain most common here

  • Neurological symptoms

    • Behavioral changes are most common

    • Time to clinical signs varies

    • No treatment


Streptococcus Equi

  • “Strangles”

  • Clinical Signs:

    • High Fever

    • Nasal Discharge

    • Abscessed Lymph nodes

    • “Silent Carrier” status

  • High morbidity, low mortality


Salmonellosis

  • ZOONOTIC DISEASE!

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Colitis

    • Diarrhea

  • Highly contagious bacterial infection


Contagious Equine Metritis

  • Clinical Signs:

    • Uterine infection

    • Failure to conceive

  • Strict importation controls


RhodococcusEqui

  • Leading cause of foal pneumonia

    • Foals under 6 months of age most susceptible

    • High (28%) mortality rate


Vaccinations

  • Purpose  Acquired Immunity to disease

  • Initial vaccination

    • Boosters for unvaccinated animals – 3-6 weeks apart (up to 3, depending on vaccine)

  • Annual or semi-annual boosters

  • Routes of Administration

  • Consult with vet

  • Different vaccines for different “types” of horses!

    • Broodmares vs. performance vs. “home-bound”


Routes of Administration

Intramuscular (IM)

Intranasal (IN)


What are your options?

  • Establish a Biosecurity Plan

    • Not as easy as vaccination

    • Risk aversion of the operation or horse owner?

  • All will come at some cost!


Communication with staff, owners and visitors!

  • Make sure they know the rules!

  • Language barriers?

  • Signage


Visitors and employees?

  • Ask! Especially if there is a current disease outbreak in the area

  • Use good hygiene methods

  • Have a plan in case of outbreak


Separate Farm and Personal Vehicles


Traffic patterns

  • People, animals, vehicles

    • Farm personnel

    • Veterinarians

    • Farriers

    • Visitors

    • Horse owners (boarders)

  • Wheel barrows, trucks, trailers, tractors, 4-wheelers, etc.


Facility Design

  • Think about infection control before you build

    • Alleyways

    • High traffic areas

    • Treatment areas (stocks, wash stall, etc.)

  • Ease of cleaning

  • Can it be isolated?


Optimize Health Plans for All HorsesTransport and Housing


Post Contact Information


Insect Control


Facilities

  • Separated from other horses for (ideally) a minimum of 3 weeks

  • How far apart?

    • Distances diseases travel not established

    • “35 feet” rule for neurological herpes virus?

  • Management

    • Separate equipment

    • Do new horses last


Where does the drain go?


What if facilities or schedules don’t allow isolation?

  • Group horses according to use/exposure potential

  • Commingled horses are of equal status – exposure WILL happen between them


Keep number of horses per group as small as possible


Minimize contact between groups


Spread of disease can happen easily!


Route of exposure? Can you control it?

Consider all means of disease transmission


Insects, rodents, other animals!


Install Wash Stations


Clean and Disinfect Regularly


Recommendations for New Horses


Options for managing risk posed by horse contact

  • Establish health requirements

    • Visiting horses

    • New arrivals

    • Horses returning after an event

  • Segregation by risk level

  • Isolation/monitoring of new arrivals

  • Monitoring for illness + plan of action


Quarantine


Examples of Health Requirements

  • Certificate of veterinary inspection (health certificate)

    • Timing of exam vs. arrival of horse?

  • Ask about past medical history

    • Illness in this horse or others it has been around

  • Examine horse when it arrives

  • Test for infection

    • Coggins test

    • Others (i.e., screening for strangles)


Example of Testing for Infection


Endoscopy for Strangles


Isolation of New Arrivals

  • Adequate facilities?

  • Adequate equipment?

  • Enough personnel?

  • All must be present to ensure good infection control!


Early detection is key

  • Determine cause of disease

    • Allows you to develop a control plan

  • Isolate ill horse(s) at first sign of disease

  • DO NOT MOVE EXPOSED HORSES

    • Until you have determinedthey don’t pose a risk to unexposed horses

    • Monitor exposed horses for illness


Recommendations for Show Horses


Maintain Herd Health Program


Avoid Contact with Other Horses and Equipment


House Traveling Horses Together


Quarantine Upon Return


Discuss Sanitation with Shipper


Recommendations for Racetracks


Coggins Test & CVI


Install Wash Stations


Limit Barn Access to Authorized Personnel Only


Recommendations for Hired Professionals


Decontamination Procedures


Decontamination


Disinfectants


Footbaths


Dispose of Waste


Risk Assessment


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