Mqm 326
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MQM 326. The Advice Business Chapter 11. Things to Consider. Expect Resistance Insist on gathering data though Establish Rapport Grant respect Maintain professional distance. Approaches to Data Gathering. Deductive Begin with hypothesis, Support or refute Heavy on quantitative

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Mqm 326

MQM 326

The Advice Business

Chapter 11

Things to consider

Things to Consider

  • Expect Resistance

    • Insist on gathering data though

  • Establish Rapport

    • Grant respect

    • Maintain professional distance

Approaches to data gathering

Approaches to Data Gathering

  • Deductive

    • Begin with hypothesis, Support or refute

    • Heavy on quantitative

  • Naturalistic

    • Make sense of the situiation from the participant’s point of view

    • Look for patterns, categories, dimensions

    • More qualitative in nature

Data collection techniques

Data Collection Techniques

  • Interview

    • Unstructured

      • Single interviewer, little need for standardized questions

      • General to specific

    • Structured

      • Several interviewers, more than one site

      • No opportunity to explore unanticipated topics



  • Make them value neutral

  • Keep them as open ended as possible

  • Make assumptions

  • Develop one idea at a time

  • Avoid jargon

  • Avoid closed ended questions

The interview process

The Interview Process

  • Establish rapport

    • Explain in broad terms the study

    • Describe how confidentiality is to be maintained

  • Questioning

    • Begin with non threatening questions

    • Keep all responses (verbal and nonverbal value neutral)

The interview process1

The Interview Process

  • Probing

    • Nod your head, say “un-huh”

    • Ask follow up neutral questions

    • Make neutral comments

    • Pause, remain silent for more

The interview process2

The Interview Process

  • Recording responses

    • Use respondents exact words, grammar, and colloquialisms

    • Use recording equipment when allowed

    • Fill in any note taking gaps immediately

  • Exiting

    • Thank them for their time and make sure they feel good about the process

Interview validity

Interview Validity

  • Social Desirability

    • Particularly true with values and beliefs

  • Interviewer Bias

    • Your expectations

    • Your impressions

  • Rushing through the questions and forgetting to listen to answers.

Interview validity1

Interview Validity

  • Assuming an understanding

  • Lapsing into closed questions

  • Filling silence

  • Losing professional distance

  • Losing control of the interview

Focus groups

Focus Groups

  • 7 to 10 people

  • Interact with each other as well as the interviewer

  • Conversation builds on itself



  • Systemic

    • Deliberate, planned, organized, methodical

  • Non systemic

    • Participant-observer

    • Non participant-observer

Types of sampling observations

Types of Sampling Observations

  • Event Sampling

    • Chose location, time, what event, what activities

  • Time Sampling

    • Sample observations at regular intervals.

    • Not good for rarely occurring events

Recording observations

Recording Observations

  • Narratives

    • Observations are recorded in descriptive terms

    • Interpretations can be difficult and engender disagreement among experts

  • Categories

    • Observations are classed into a finite set of predetermined categories, each limited in scope and fairly explicit

Artifacts documents archives


  • Good tool for comparison with other methods.



  • Structured

  • Explicit

  • Consistent

  • However, design and implementation can be difficult

Questionnaire design

Questionnaire Design

  • What questions to ask

  • What kind of information

    • Attitudes

    • Beliefs

    • Behaviors

    • Attributes

Questionnaire design1

Questionnaire Design

3.Writing the question

  • Sequencing the questions

  • Designing a cover letter

  • Identifying the sample

  • Piloting and revising the questionnaire

  • Administering the questionnaire

Questionnaire bias

Questionnaire Bias

  • Halo effect

  • Leniency/severity

  • Central Tendency

Additional considerations

Additional Considerations

  • Questionnaire formatting

  • Response rate

  • Validity and Reliability

  • Social Desirability

The advice business

The Advice Business

  • Chapter 12

  • Interventions: Getting The Client To Change

Intervention a definition

Intervention: A Definition

  • An action or series of actions aimed at individuals, groups, or entire organizations with the intent of changing current behavior or direction and, ultimately, improving some aspect or aspects of performance.

Roadblocks for change

Roadblocks For Change

  • The consultant’s expertise bias

  • The consultant’s limited expertise

  • The client’s pre-imposed boundaries around politically charged issues

  • The client’s inability to grasp ramifications

Drivers for change

Drivers For Change

  • Institutional Leadership

    • Articulate A Vision for Change

    • Set (and expect) expectations for change

    • Model the desired behavior

    • Recognize and reward behavior consistent with change

    • Engage in symbolic acts designed to support the change

Drivers for change1

Drivers For Change

  • Management practices

    • Employees typically learn by watching their managers

  • Organizational context

    • Structure and systems support such as appraisal and reward systems must support change

  • Individual Behavior

    • Social norms need to also support change

Involving everyone

Involving Everyone!

  • Collaborative direction setting

  • Structural change and management process

  • Large-group engagement

  • Human resource processes



  • Communications

  • Measurement

  • Leadership behavior

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