Reactive chemicals
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REACTIVE CHEMICALS. NATURE OF THE HAZARD GENERAL CATEGORIES: 1. REDOX REACTIONS 2. EXPLOSIVES 3. PYROPHORIC AND WATER REACTIVE. 1. REDOX REACTIONS. a. General Chemistry Review Definition / types Example reaction / oxidation #’s Oxidizing agents (oxidizers).

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REACTIVE CHEMICALS

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Reactive chemicals

REACTIVE CHEMICALS


Reactive chemicals

NATURE OF THE HAZARD

GENERAL CATEGORIES:

1. REDOX REACTIONS

2. EXPLOSIVES

3. PYROPHORIC AND

WATER REACTIVE


1 redox reactions

1. REDOX REACTIONS

a. General Chemistry Review

Definition / types

Example reaction / oxidation #’s

Oxidizing agents (oxidizers)


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b. Properties of Oxidizers

Increase burning rate of combustibles (redox rxn)

Involved in exothermic redox reactions

Decompose to O2 to support combustion

** Do not store oxidizers with combustibles


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c. Factors Affecting Redox Rxn Rate

Temperature

Pressure

Particle Size of Combustibles

d. Examples of Oxidizers


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PEROXIDES

General Formula (R-O-O-R)

Examples

Hydrogen Peroxide

Sodium Peroxide


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PEROXIDE FORMING CHEMICALS

See article by Nagel

Ethers

NITRIC ACID, NITRATES, NITRITES

Nitric acid

Gun powder


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AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS

Ammonium Nitrate

Primary use

S.S. Grandcamp Accident, Texas City, Texas, 1947 (see Nagel article)


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OXYGENATED HALOGENS

Oxygenated Chlorine

Perchloric Acid

Uses

Hazards

e. Examples of Reducing Agents

HYDRAZINE (N2H4)

Uses / hazards


2 explosives

2. EXPLOSIVES

a. Definition

Substance that detonates spontaneously or as a result of friction, mechanical impact, or heat.


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b. Characteristics of Explosives

Rapid redox reaction

Products are simple (stable) gases

Very exothermic

Explain why shock wave created?

Atmospheric O2 often not required

Explosive substance contains both oxidizing agent and reducing agent


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c. Examples of Explosives

Nitroglycerin-

Nitrocellulose-

Trinitrotoluene (TNT)-

Picric Acid-


3 pyrophoric chemicals

3. Pyrophoric Chemicals

a. Definition

Substances that oxidize in air and ignite spontaneously.

Most are also water reactive.

b. Examples

Alkali Metals – Na, K

Powdered Metals- Al, Mg, Zn


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Properties of Sodium Metal

Rxn with O2

Rxn with water

Hazards

Comparison to reactions of K, Li

** Remember common precautionary measures and emergency procedures when handling reactives !!


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