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Fig. 16.04

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Fig. 16.04. The Richter Scale is a logarithmic scale that measures the magnitude of an earthquake. A magnitude 5.0 quake has Earth movements ten times greater than a 4.0 magnitude quake (= ~32x the energy released).

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The Richter Scale is a logarithmic scale that measures the magnitude of an earthquake. A magnitude 5.0 quake has Earth movements ten times greater than a 4.0 magnitude quake (= ~32x the energy released).

In theory, the local crust melts in a magnitude 10 or greater quake. The most energetic quake recorded to date had a magnitude of approximately 9.0.

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Japan – March 11, 2011

Magnitude: 9.0

Deaths: ~16,000 (with tsunami)

Largest Earthquakes in History

Haiti -January 12, 2010

Magnitude: 7.0

Deaths: ~230,000

Chile –February 27, 2010

Magnitude: 8.8

Deaths: <1,000 (with tsunami)

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/most_destructive.php

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Body Waves

Surface Waves

Fig. 16.05

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Fig. 16.06

A seismograph measures relative movement of the ground to a stationary pen.

Fig. 16.07

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Seismogram– record of ground movement produced by a seismograph

P-wave velocity will always be higher than S-wave velocity, no matter what the waves travel through.

P-waves arrive at the station first, followed by S-waves and later by surface waves.

Because S-waves travel more slowly than P-waves, the farther the waves have traveled, the farther behind the S-waves will be and the longer the time gap until they arrive.

http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/GeologicalDiagrams1.html

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Earthquake in Pacific Northwest

Waves arrive in Denver

distance: 2000 km

Waves arrive in St. John’s

distance: 5300 km

Waves arrive in Lima

distance: 9000 km

Fig. 16.10

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Fig. 16.09

The difference between the arrival times for P-waves and S-waves can be used to determine the distance to the earthquake’s epicenter

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