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Procedural Sedation Changes Go live: APRIL 24th. Why These Changes?. Per the Cal Dept of Public Health (ie, the “state”) and CMS (federal) nurses cannot push an anesthetic drug for procedural sedation. This includes propofol, ketamine, barbituates and etomidate.

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Procedural Sedation Changes Go live: APRIL 24th

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Procedural Sedation ChangesGo live: APRIL 24th

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Why These Changes?

  • Per the Cal Dept of Public Health (ie, the “state”) and CMS (federal) nurses cannot push an anesthetic drug for procedural sedation. This includes propofol, ketamine, barbituates and etomidate.

  • On April 24thwe will change our process to meet this regulation.

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What can RNs do?

  • Moderate sedation- ONLY

  • Those performing moderate sedation must have attended SMCS sedation class AND have current ACLS or PALS

  • Regardless of intent of sedation, some drugs are defined as agents of deep sedation and can NOT be administered by an RN for procedural sedation

    • Ketamine, Propofol, Barbituates and Etomidate

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BRN Position Statement for RN

  • RN only task.

    • Can not be delegated to non licensed personnel

  • Recognize emergency situations and institute emergency procedures

  • Assess if sedation by RN is in pt’s best interest

  • Airway management skills and training

  • 1:1 care

RN is patient’s advocate.

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Sedation Privileging- MD

  • Up to date list of privileges located on SHIPER

  • RN to check privileges before starting procedure

  • MD are privileged by the Department of Anesthesia

  • Exception: ED MDs maintain privileges per their department

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What will MDs do?

  • The physicians must push the drug or push the button on a pre-programmed IV pump for these drugs, or give an IM shot of ketamine.

  • For longer orthopedic procedures, the doctor may ask you to program an on-going infusion, then they will start the drug after they see the confirmation screen on the IV pump.

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Does this effect RSI and infusion of vented patients?

  • You will still be allowed to push propofol and/or etomidate for a rapid sequence intubation (RSI) because the doctor is there to intubate the patient.

  • This does NOTeffect infusions of propofol in the vented ICU patient. This regulation applies to procedural sedation.

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  • New order set developed

  • Must be used on Med-sug/ tele units

  • Verify patent IV

  • Hang NS 1000 ml

    • May administer 250 ml bolus for hypotension

  • Reversal agents prechecked on sheet

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Why? Pulse Oximetry and ETCO2

  • American Society of Anesthesiologists requires use of ETCO2 on all case of MODERATE and DEEP sedation.

  • Funding for more ETCO2 monitors has been approved.

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Exchange of 02 and CO2 dependant on Ventilation


Movement of air in and out of thoracic cavity

Control of ventilation


Phrenic nerve

Diaphragm, intercostals, accessory muscles

Respiration and Ventilation




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Pulse Oximetry

  • Arterial oxygen saturation

  • Measures respiration, NOT ventilation

  • Decreased O2 Saturation is a very late sign of hypoventilation

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  • ETCO2 is required for ALL sedation cases- moderate and deep!

  • Place on pt prior to sedation

  • Establish their baseline

  • Normal 35- 45

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  • Measures Ventilation

    • Normal CO2 is 35-45

  • CO2 will rise 6 – 8 mm Hg during the first minute of apnea

  • CO2 - early indicator

  • Pulse oximetry - late indicator

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TCM Monitoring - Pediatrics

  • Transcutaneous monitoring

    • non-invasive technique

    • Probe heats site to 41-45 degrees C to ↑ diffusion

      • Takes a few minutes to equillibrate

    • continuous monitoring of the partial pressure of arterialized capillary blood.

    • Typically this will be the PCO2 level.

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TCM Monitoring

  • May keep on site for 8 h

  • Have available when deep sedation is planned.

    • patients 5 years and under

    • Small body mass more accurate

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Rising ETCO2

  • Pt may become agitated and start pulling off ETCO2 , IVs ect.

  • Critical Thinking Needed: is this under medication or is this increasing ETCO2.

    • Increasing ETCO2 = Treatment is Ventilation!!

    • Under medication= administer more meds.

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Programming a pump for MD administration

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Medication administration by MD

  • For short procedures: Draw up and label syringe for Physician administration

  • For longer procedures: MD may want to have a bolus administered via infusion pump followed by a continuous infusion during the procedure

  • With all new procedures there is a learning curve…. Be prepared with NS one liter hanging for hypotension induced by too rapid administration of the drug!!

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Propofol – Recommendations for longer procedures

  • Initiate moderate sedation with Fentanyl and Versed.

  • Follow with continuous infusion of Propofol during the procedure.

  • Recommended dosage is 25 – 75 mcg/kg/min for adults.

  • MONITOR airway and ventilation!!

  • Stop infusion at the end of the procedure.

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Anesthesia Recommendations

  • Short procedures: single dose of Propofol 0.5 mg/kg IV over 1-2 minutes using a syringe. An additional 20-40 mg IV may be needed for some patients.

  • Longer procedures (adult patient):

    • Have the RN administer Versed 1 mg IV and Fentanyl 50 mcg IV to provide baseline moderate sedation while preparing for the procedure.

    • Have the RN set up a Propofol drip on an infusion pump and connect to the patient’s IV.

    • Determine the dosing of Propofol you wish to administer for your procedure. Anesthesia recommends a continuous dose of Propofol 25 to 75µg/kg/min, with a dose of 50µg/kg/min working well for most patients. Stop the Propofol at the end of the procedure.

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Programming a bolus dose: Confirm with the MD that you are giving a BOLUS and the amount they wish to give.They must hit the YES button

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This would be the confirmation screen the doctor will see when you want to run an infusion. The doctor must push YES

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  • Document all medications administered on the appropriate procedural sedation flowsheet or departmental documentation tool.

  • For medications administered by physicians, please document the name, dose, route, and name of administering physician.

  • Ask the physician to sign the order set and/or the flowsheet in the appropriate location.

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Anesthetic Review

  • Etomidate

  • Ketamine

  • Propofol

  • Pentobarbitol

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Adult medication review

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  • IV anesthetic

  • Commonly used for rapid sequence intubation

  • NO analgesic effect; produces hypnotic state in about 1 minute

  • Minimal hemodynamic effects

  • May have myoclonic contraction

    • Benzodiazapines may ↓

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  • Adult Dose:

    • 300 mcg/kg

    • Elderly or Hepatic 150- 200 mcg/kg

    • Children May require 30% MORE than adult dose

  • May be used IV only as bolus or slow push 10mg/ min

  • Onset:< 1 minute

  • Duration:6- 10 minutes

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Propofol (Diprivan)

  • Sedative hypnotic for anesthesia

    • Little to no analgesic effect

    • No anti- anxiety effet

    • Has negative inotropic effect – can lead to hypotension

  • Can progress easily and rapidly to general anesthesia

  • May be given as S L O W IV push or for non intubated patients (infuse over at least 3-5 min)

Don’t give to patients who are allergic to eggs or soybeans.

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  • Adult Dose:

    • 0.5 mg/ kg IV over 3- 5 min for bolus dosing

    • Incremental boluses 10- 20 mg

    • Continuous infusion for procedural sedation: 25 – 75 mcg/kg/min

  • Onset: < 30 seconds

  • Duration: 3 -10 minutes

  • ½ life:5 - 10 minutes

    May cause allergic reaction in those with allergy to eggs or soybean

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Ketamine (Ketalar)

  • An anesthetic agent with a

    short half-life

  • Disassociative anesthesia,

    • Trance like state, Pts eyes may be open

    • Amnesia

    • Provides analgesia

    • ↑ muscle tone

  • Stimulates the CV system so may increase BP and pulse

Emergence reactions can occur and are more common in adolescents, with large doses of drug, and following rapid IV administration of drug.

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  • May increase oral secretions - Watch airway

  • Give atropine or glycopyrrolate to help decrease oral secretions.

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  • Hallucinations with awakening or emergence (5- 30%)

  • May give benzodiazepine to prevent emergence hallucinations in older children.

  • Limit verbal, tactile, & visual stimulation

  • Peds may not recognize caregivers during the post procedure duration

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  • Abuse– 1979; sexual assaults

  • Special K, Horse tranquilizer, animal tranq, elephant tranq, green, honey oil, jet fuel, Kay Jay, Ket, Keta, Kit Kat, Lady K, Purple, special la coke, super acid, Super C, Vitamin K, Super K

  • Hallucinogenic effects, disassociative, out of body experiences

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  • Pediatric Dose - IV: 0.25 – 0.5 mg/kg (give over 1 minute)

  • Titrate with 0.25 – 0.5 mg/kg every 5 – 10 minutes

  • Onset: 1 - 2 minutes

  • Peak: 2 - 5 minutes

  • Duration:15 - 45 minutes

    IM: 2 – 4 mg/kg

  • Onset:2 - 5 minutes

  • Peak:5 -10 minutes

  • Duration:15 - 45 minutes

    This can be given IM or IV with IM doses providing sedation for approximately 15 - 45 minutes and IV doses 15-45 minutes

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Ketamine (Ketalar)

  • Contraindicated in patients with increased intracranial, systemic or intraocular hypertension.

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Pentobarbital ( Nembutal)

  • Infants > 6 months and children:

    • IV- 0.5-3mg/kg titrate slowly over 5 minutes to max dose of 6 mg/kg or 100mg whichever is less.

    • PO Administer 15- 30 min prior to procedure

    • 2-6 mg/kg max 100 mg/dose

  • IV Onset:1 – 15 min

  • IV Duration: 15 – 30 min

  • PO onset 15 - 60 minutes

  • PO duration 1 – 4 hour

  • May be preferred for pts. with increased ICP

  • Limited information is available for use in infants < 6 months

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Propofol (Diprivan)

  • Sedative hypnotic for anesthesia

    • Little to no analgesic, no anti-anxiety effect

  • Can progress easily and rapidly to general anesthesia.

  • May be given as S L O W IV push or short continuous drip for non intubated patients (infuse over at least 3-5 mins)

  • May cause allergic reaction in those with allergy to eggs or soybean

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  • Pediatric Dose

    • 0.5 mg/ kg, IV over 3- 5 min

    • Titrate to effect

  • Onset: < 30 seconds

  • Peak: 1 min

  • Duration: 3-10 min

  • ½ life:5- 10 min

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During the weeks of April 9-23, educators and nurses will be rounding with the nurses and doctors to answer questions and provide more information as needed. Please send questions about this process to your unit educator, ANM or director.

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