World war ii
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World War II. 1939-1945. Nazism. SPACE and RACE Hitler’s main goal was the territorial expansion of the superior German race. This was outlined in Mein Kampf : Germans are a superior race and should unite to form a German Empire “Third Reich”

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World War II

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World war ii

World War II

1939-1945


Nazism

Nazism

  • SPACE and RACE

    • Hitler’s main goal was the territorial expansion of the superior German race.

    • This was outlined in Mein Kampf:

      • Germans are a superior race and should unite to form a German Empire “Third Reich”

      • Jews, Poles, Slavs, etc… were inferior and should be enslaved and forced to die out.

      • Germans would resettle their land to gain lebensraum “living space”.


Hitler defies the treaty of versailles

Hitler Defies the Treaty of Versailles

  • Treaty limited German army to only 100,000 men. Hitler disobeys this and builds up the military.

  • 1936- Hitler marches army into the Rhineland (30 mile demilitarized buffer zone with France).

  • The League of Nations was supposed to enforce the treaty but nothing happened


Appeasement

Appeasement

  • GB and France gave in to Hitler to keep peace.

  • WHY???

    • Felt guilty about Treaty of Versailles

    • Saw Hitler as better than Soviet Communism

    • Great Depression

    • Pacifism – no one wanted another war


Hitler expands

Hitler Expands

  • 1938- Hitler annexes Austria (Anschluss)

    -Next, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland be given to Germany (western region of Czechoslovakia with 3 million Germans)

  • Czechs ask France for help (allies). Near war.

  • Sept 1938-Munich Conference

    • GB and France agree to let Hitler have Sudetenland. He promises no further expansion.


World war ii

A woman in the Sudetenland greets incoming German troops with tears and a Nazi salute.


Munich conference

Munich Conference


Two views on the conference

Two Views on the Conference

  • GB Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain – I have secured… “peace with honor…peace for our time.”

  • Winston Churchill – “They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor; they will have war.”


Hitler breaks his promise

Hitler Breaks His Promise

  • March 1939 – Hitler took over Czechoslovakia

  • August 1939 – Signed the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact with Joseph Stalin.

    • Stunned the world because they were enemies

    • Secretly divided Poland and eastern Europe between them

  • Sept 1 – Hitler invades Poland

  • Sept 3 – GB and France declare war. WWII begins!


German invasion of poland 1939

German Invasion of Poland, 1939


World war ii

WWII

  • Blitzkrieg “lightning war”

    • Poland crushed in 4 weeks

  • Winter: Sitzkrieg “phony war”

  • 1940: Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France are taken over by Germany.

  • Miracle of Dunkirk

    • Heroic rescue of 300,000 Allied soldiers across the English Channel to GB.


Operation sea lion

Operation Sea Lion

  • By 1940, all of western Europe was under German control or neutral except GB.

  • Battle of Britain: RAF v. Luftwaffe

    • 57 straight nights of bombing on London and other cities, then sporadic until May 1941

    • Killed over 40,000 civilians, massive damage

    • British never surrendered; Hitler gave up


Operation barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa

  • June 1941-Hitler invades the Soviet Union

    • Wanted rich resources (land, oil, grain)

    • Wanted to defeat Communism

    • Wanted to put more pressure on GB

  • Scorched earth policy

  • Temps reached -40 degrees in Dec 1941; thousands die

  • Siege of Leningrad (900 Day Siege) – 1 million Soviets died over 2 ½ year siege

    -Supplies blockaded. Ration: 2 pieces bread/day


Back in the us

Back in the US…

  • President FDR is building support for US involvement

    • Persuaded Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act

    • Allowed US to sell/lend war materials to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States”

    • Wanted to try to stand up for democracy without joining the war


Japan

Japan

  • July 1941 – US cut off sell of oil to Japan because of their takeovers in Asia

    • Reduced their oil supplies by 90%

  • Dec 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor

    • Sank or crippled every American battleship but all aircraft carriers were out at sea and unharmed

    • Killed 2,400 people

    • “A date which will live in infamy”


The big three

The Big Three

  • FDR, Winston Churchill, and Stalin

    • FDR and Churchill were true allies, not Stalin

    • Only cooperated to defeat Hitler

    • Stalin wanted FDR and WC to open a 2nd front against Germany to take pressure off USSR

    • Didn’t until 1944.


Turning points

Turning Points

  • May 1942 – Battle of the Coral Sea

  • June 1942 – Battle of Midway

    • Americans destroyed several Japanese ships and planes

  • Jan 1943 – Russians defeat Germans at the Battle of Stalingrad

  • May 1943 – Allies led by Dwight. D. Eisenhower force an Axis surrender in North Africa


D day

D-Day

  • June 6, 1944 – Allies land at Normandy (France)

  • Free France, Belgium, enter Germany by March 1945

  • Soviets also advancing from East

  • Mussolini – executed

  • Hitler – suicide Apr 30, surrender May 7

  • May 8, 1945 – V-E Day (Victory in Europe)


Japan1

Japan?

  • Will not surrender

    • Kamikaze

    • Manhattan Project – code name for the research on atomic bomb

    • Harry S Truman is now President of US

      • FDR died April 12, 1945

    • August 6 – Hiroshima – 70,000 killed instantly

    • August 9 – Nagasaki – 40,000; surrender

    • Many more died later from radiation


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