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Herbicides for Sugarcane PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Herbicides for Sugarcane. Curtis Rainbolt Everglades REC. Herbicide Basics. What is the application timing Common sugarcane timing PRE Applied prior to weed and crop emergence Generally soil active herbicides (some exceptions) POST Applied after weeds have emerged - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Herbicides for Sugarcane

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Herbicides for Sugarcane

Curtis Rainbolt

Everglades REC


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Herbicide Basics

  • What is the application timing

    • Common sugarcane timing

      • PRE

        • Applied prior to weed and crop emergence

        • Generally soil active herbicides (some exceptions)

      • POST

        • Applied after weeds have emerged

        • Can be early, mid, late

        • Generally over-the-top

        • Generally more foliar active herbicides


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Herbicide Basics

  • What is the application timing

    • Common sugarcane timing

      • Post-Direct/Lay-by

        • Applied after sugarcane is fairly large

        • Direct herbicide at base of plant

        • Generally for herbicides that cause crop injury

        • Can be foliar or soil active (or both)

      • Non-Crop/Fallow

        • Generally foliar active

        • Can help with hard to control weeds


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PRE Herbicides


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Atrazine

  • Backbone of sugarcane weed control

    • Used both PRE and POST

      • PRE

        • Good soil activity (2-4 qt/A)

        • Controls most broadleaves

        • Suppress/control many grasses

        • Activity begins to fade 3-5 weeks after application

        • Broadleaf activity last longer than grass activity


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Evik (Ametryn)

  • Generally applied POST, but some PRE

  • Controls many small grasses and broadleaves

    • Needs to be less than 4 inches

      • Less than 3 inches for alexandergrass

    • Crop injury

      • More common with higher rates and warmer temperatures


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Evik (Ametryn)

  • Rates

    • 0.5-1.5 lb/A (labeled)

    • Lower rates often used

      • Efficacy?

  • Tankmixture:

    • Often tank mixed with atrazine (2-4 lb/A) at 0.25 to .75 lb/A


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Prowl H2O and Prowl 3.3 (Pendimethalin)

  • Used on moderate acreage

    • Excellent grass control

      • Can be season-long under good conditions

    • Not so good on broadleaves

      • Tank-mix with Sencor (metribuzin) helps

      • Still may need follow-up for spiny amaranth


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Prowl (Pendimethalin)

  • Challenges

    • Needs rainfall/soil moisture for activity

    • Can be good when soil is dry

      • More consistent when soil moisture is good

  • Rates

    • Sand

      • 2.4-3.6 qt/A

    • Muck

      • 2.4-4.85 qt/A


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Prowl + Sencor

  • Good broad spectrum PRE program

    • Muck soil only!!!

    • Ideally, don’t cultivate if there aren’t weeds

    • Some broadleaves can come through

      • Spiny pigweed

    • Expensive

    • Can be very good with good soil moisture

  • Rates

    • Prowl (4 qt/A)

    • Sencor (1 lb/A)


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K4

  • Registered for FL sugarcane in 2005

  • Mixture of hexazinone (Velpar) and diuron (Karmex)

  • Applied at 2-4 lbs/A

  • Higher rates for muck soils, lower on sand

  • Good control of many grass and broadleaf weeds

  • Can go out early POST

  • Apply to cane less than 18 inches tall


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Diuron(Karmex/Direx/Etc)

  • Not used much

    • Sand soils (binds very strongly on muck)

    • Better control of broadleaves than grass

    • Not much experience

      • Crop injury?

  • Rate

    • 1.6 lb/A PRE


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Roundup Ultramax(Glyphosate)

  • MUST BE APPLIED PRIOR TO CANE EMERGENCE!!!!!!!!

    • Excellent control of emerged weeds

      • Excellent control of sugarcane if emerged!

    • Timing is very, very critical

    • Controls some hard to manage species

      • Bermudagrass

      • Paragrass

    • Rate

      • 3.25-4 qt/A


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Valor(Flumioxazin)

  • PRE/POST-Direct

    • Good broadleaf control PRE

      • Grass control has been variable

    • Active POST on small grass and broadleaves

      • High levels of burn on sugarcane

        • Post-direct only

  • Cannot be applied over the top of sugarcane


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POST Herbicides


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Atrazine

  • POST

    • Use with crop oil concentrate

      • Rate still 2-4 qt/A

      • Controls many small broadleaves

      • Grass needs to be small

        • 3 inches of less is ideal

      • Provides residual activity


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Envoke (Trifloxysulfuron)

  • Applied at 0.3 to 0.6 oz/A

  • POST, ratoon sugarcane only

  • Excellent nutsedge product

    • Good control of small broadleaves

    • Controls some small grasses

    • Excellent on alligatorweed, spiny amaranth

  • Looks good in combination Asulox/Asulam at 0.5 gallon/A

    • Good, wide spectrum treatment


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2,4-D Amine

  • Very versatile, useful product

    • Controls most broadleaves

      • Can use lower rates on smaller weeds

      • Can suppress nutsedge growth

        • Probably not long-term control

      • Alligatorweed activity can be good

        • Need good conditions for best control


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2,4-D Amine

  • Challenges

    • Can drift and volatilize

      • Major problems!!!!

      • Follow the Florida Organo-Auxin Rule

        • No volatile formulations (esters)

        • Application restrictions based on wind speed

          • Also distance from sensitive crops

        • http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/WG051


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2,4-D Amine

  • Rates

    • 0.5 to 2.0 lb ai/A

      • Note rates in ai due to many formulations

    • Lower end will control many small weeds

    • Higher rates for alligatorweed, large weeds


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Asulox(Asulam)

  • Excellent POST grass herbicide

    • Controls most common grasses

      • Size of weeds is important

        • Can use 6 pt/A if grass is 6-8 inches or less

          • Preferably less!

        • Use 1 gal/A (8 pt) is grass is greater than 8 inches

      • Use a surfactant (0.25% v/v) or COC (1% v/v)


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Asulox(Asulam)

  • Challenges

    • Good spray coverage is very important

      • Many control issues relate to coverage

    • Use the proper rate

      • If it’s 6 inches today, it will probably be 8 inches next week

    • Slow activity

      • Need to be patient

    • Injury

      • We can see burning to leaves at higher rates

      • Can use a directed application


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Asulox(Asulam)


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Evik (Ametryn)

  • Controls many small grasses and broadleaves

    • Needs to be less than 4 inches

      • Less than 3 inches for alexandergrass

    • Directed application

      • Injury will be seen on treated foliage

  • Use surfactant at 0.5% v/v

  • Rates

    • 0.5-1.5 lb/A

    • Lower rates often used


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Sempra, Sandea (Halosulfuron)

  • Excellent nutsedge control

    • Yellow and purple (4-12 inch ideal)

    • Works best under good moisture conditions

    • Controls some small broadleaves

      • Small pigweed, ragweed (less than 4 inches)

  • Use surfactant or COC

    • 0.25-0.5% v/v surfactant or 1% COC v/v

  • Rate

    • 1 to 1.33 oz/A


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Fallow Land Treatments


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Glyphosate

  • Excellent control of emerged weeds

    • Controls many hard to manage species

      • Bermudagrass

      • Paragrass

      • Napiergrass

      • Nutsedge (better on yellow)

      • Many, many others


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Take Home

  • Always follow the label!!!

  • Several effective herbicides

    • Identify weed spectrum

    • Apply correct rate

    • Apply to correct weed size

  • Let the herbicide work!

  • We will hopefully have more options in the future!