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Chapter 3: Activity 2 Choice of Media for Durability. What do you see?. What are acids and bases?. Acids. Always contain H + (ex. HCl, H 2 SO 4 ) Acidic foods have a sour taste Neutralize bases React with most metals Turns blue litmus red Have a pH <7

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Chapter 3 activity 2 choice of media for durability

Chapter 3:Activity 2 Choice of Media for Durability

What do you see?



Acids
Acids

  • Always contain H+ (ex. HCl, H2SO4)

  • Acidic foods have a sour taste

  • Neutralize bases

  • React with most metals

  • Turns blue litmus red

  • Have a pH <7

  • Turns universal indicator yellow, orange, or red


Bases
Bases

  • Contain OH- (ex. NaOH, KOH)

  • Have a bitter taste

  • Feel slippery

  • Neutralize acids

  • Are corrosive

  • Have a pH >7

  • Turn red litmus blue

  • Turn universal indicator green, blue, or purple


pH

  • Is a measure of how much H+ is in a solution sample.

  • If H+= OH- then, pH=7 and the solution is neutral.

  • If H+ > OH-, then pH<7 and the solution is acidic.

  • If OH- >H+, then pH>7 and the solution is basic.

  • The pH scale goes from 0-14, with 7 being neutral

Universal Indicator Scale



How is ph important to artwork
How is pH important to artwork?

What has happened here?


How does this happen
How Does This Happen?

SO2(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO3(aq)

sulfurous acid

SO3(g) + H2O(l)  H2SO4(aq)

sulfuric acid

NO3(g) + H2O(l)  HNO3(aq)

nitric acid




What does acid rain do
What does acid rain do?

CaCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) CaSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2

Marble sulfuric acid calcium sulfate water carbon dioxide

Dissolves in the water and washes away

Zn (s) + H2SO4(aq)  ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)

zinc metal sulfuric acid zinc sulfate hydrogen gas

Zinc is usually a good metal choice for outdoor stuff, but in the presence of acid rain, it reacts and washes away.


In 1992, after being displayed outdoors in an urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s The Thinker showed the effects of "acid rain" and particulate deposition common in such atmospheres. Streaking, caused by the run-off of condensate from the sculptural forms, had etched a pattern of irregular rivulets in the surface, while urban aerosols from industrial and vehicular sources built up black and other accretions. The forms were obscured; Rodin’s modeling could no longer be "read," with some high points black and recesses bright due to corrosion.

Philadelphia Museum of Art


What might be a better choice of material for outdoor art
What might be a better choice of material for outdoor art? urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

SiO2(s) + H2SO4(aq)  no reaction

Sandstone and granite sulfuric acid


Other alternatives
Other alternatives??? urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

The copper in this piece of artwork wouldn’t stand a chance exposed to air and water, BUT a protective coating over it can keep it looking new for ages!

How would a protective coating have affected this famous piece of art?


Ted talk
Ted Talk urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DupXDD87oHc


Naming bases
Naming Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

A BASE is a substance that when put into water, gives away a hydroxide ion (OH-1) to another substance in the water solution.

NaOH(s) + H2O → Na+1(aq) + OH-1(aq)


Naming bases1
Naming Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

1. Name the metal first and then the hydroxide ion

Ex: NaOH

Sodium hydroxide


Naming bases2
Naming Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

1. Name the metal first and then the hydroxide ion

Ex: KOH

Potassium hydroxide


Naming bases3
Naming Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

1. Name the metal first and then the hydroxide ion

Ex: Ca(OH)2

Calcium hydroxide


Naming bases4
Naming Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

1. A base that is commonly used is

Ex: NH3 Ammonia

It is a base because:

NH3 + H2O → + NH4+1(aq) OH-1(aq)


Writing chemical formulas for bases
Writing Chemical Formulas for Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Ex: sodium hydroxide

1. Write the chemical symbol f the metal, than OH

NaOH

2. Put up the charges, and criss-cross if necessary.

+1 -1

NaOH


Writing chemical formulas for bases1
Writing Chemical Formulas for Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Ex: calcium hydroxide

1. Write the chemical symbol f the metal, than OH

CaOH

2. Put up the charges, and criss-cross if necessary.

+2 -1

Ca(OH)2


Writing chemical formulas for bases2
Writing Chemical Formulas for Bases urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Ex: lithium hydroxide

1. Write the chemical symbol f the metal, than OH

LiOH

2. Put up the charges, and criss-cross if necessary.

+1 -1

LiOH


Naming acids
Naming Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

An ACID is a substance that when put into water, gives away a hydrogen ion (H+1) to another substance in the water solution.

HCl + H2O → H+1(aq)+ Cl-1(aq)


Types of acids
Types of Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

There are two types of acids:

1. Binary acids-HCl(aq) -two different elements

2. Ternary acids-H2SO4(aq)

-three different elements

-polyatomic ions (ending in ate)

-polyatomic ions (ending in ite)


Naming binary acids
Naming Binary Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

EX: HCl(aq)

1. Use the prefix hydrofor hydrogen

2. Anion ending changes from ide to ic

3. Add the word acid at the end.

hydrochloric acid


Naming complex acids
Naming Complex Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Polyatomic ions ending in ite

EX: H2SO3

1. NO hydro prefix!!!

2. Anion ending changes from ITE to OUS

-Sulfite change to Sulfurous

“RITEOUS”

Add the word acid at the end

Polyatomic ions ending in ate

EX: H2SO4

1. NO hydro prefix!!!

2. Anion ending changes from ATE to IC

-Sulfate change to Sulfuric

“ICIATEit”

3. Add the word acid at the end


Naming ternary acids
Naming Ternary Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Polyatomic ions ending in ate

EX: H2SO4

1. NO hydro prefix!!!

2. Anion ending changes from ATE toIC

-Sulfate change to Sulfuric

“ICIATEthat”

3. Add the word acid at the end

Sulfuric acid


Naming ternary acids1
Naming Ternary Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Polyatomic ions ending in ite

EX: H2SO3

1. NO hydro prefix!!!

2. Anion ending changes from ITE toOUS

-Sulfite change to Sulfurous

“RITEOUS”

  • Add the word acid at the end

    Sulfurous acid


Practice naming acids
Practice Naming Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

1. H3PO4(aq)

-PO42-= phosphate

-Use saying “ICIATEthat”

Answer= Phosphoric acid

2. HNO2(aq)

-NO21-= nitrite

-Use saying “RITEOUS”

Answer= Nitrous acid


Writing Chemical Formulas for Acids urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s


How to write a formula for an acid
How to Write a Formula for an Acid: urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

BINARY ACIDS

Ex: hydrosulfuric acid

1. Write down symbols (H and S)

2. Determine Charges (H+1 S-2)

3. Cancel charges or use criss-cross method

to form subscripts to cancel out charges

4. H2S(aq)


Ternary ACIDS urban-industrial environment for over 60 years, Philadelphia’s version of Rodin’s

Ex: sulfuric acid

1. No hydro prefix so we have a polyatomic ion:

In this case “ICIATEthat”

sulfuric = sulfate (SO4)-2

Can also be “RITEOUS”

sulfurous = sulfite

2. Write down symbols (H and SO4)

3. Determine Charges (H+1 SO4-2)

4. Cancel charges or use criss-cross method

to form subscripts to cancel out charges

5. H2SO4(aq)


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