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Introduction . Course overview History of Oceanography. Interdisciplinary. Biology Chemistry Physics Geology Geography Political Science Mathematics Computer Science. History of Oceanography. Early Age of Discovery Science and the Oceans Modern Oceanography

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Introduction

Introduction

Course overview

History of Oceanography


Interdisciplinary

Interdisciplinary

  • Biology

  • Chemistry

  • Physics

  • Geology

  • Geography

  • Political Science

  • Mathematics

  • Computer Science


History of oceanography

History of Oceanography

  • Early

  • Age of Discovery

  • Science and the Oceans

  • Modern Oceanography

  • Different motivations at different times


Early history

Early history

  • Reasons: trade, fishing, defense

    Self centered view of Earth

  • Examples


Early history 2

Early history (2)

Difficult to navigate without shorelines

  • Phoenicians (approx. 1000 BC)

  • Polynesians (300-600 AD most important)


Early history 3

Early history (3)

  • Greeks (approx. 500 BC)

    • Erasthosthenes (working in Egypt) – circumference of earth

    • Pliny the Elder – phases of moon and tides

    • Ptolemy(approx. 150 AD) – vast ocean, used lat and long

  • Middle Ages: very little exploration except

    • Vikings (approx. 1000 AD)

    • Arabs


Age of discovery 1

Age of Discovery (1)

  • Travel for economic, political and religious reasons

  • Portugal:

    • Prince Henry

    • Dias (1497)

    • Vasco Da Gama (1498)


Age of discovery 2

Age of Discovery (2)

Spain

  • Columbus (1492)

  • Vespucci (~1500)

  • Balboa (1513)

  • Magellan (1522)


Age of discovery 3

Age of Discovery (3)

Discovery with some science

  • James Cook (1768-1780)

    • Endeavour, Resolution, Adventure

  • Ben Franklin (1769)

  • Matthew F. Maury (early 1800s)


Purely scientific

Purely scientific

  • Challenger Expedition (1872-1876)

  • Extremely significant


More for science

More for science

  • Voyages of Nansen aboard Fram (end of 1800s)

  • Meteor expedition (1925-27)


Modern oceanography 20 th century

Modern Oceanography (20th century)

  • International

  • Interdisciplinary

  • Scientific

  • Complex instruments

  • “Modern” technology


Modern oceanography

Modern Oceanography

  • US funding – NSF, ONR, NOAA

  • Oceanographic institutes

  • Drill ships, satellites, for example

  • International cooperation


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