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Introduction . Course overview History of Oceanography. Interdisciplinary. Biology Chemistry Physics Geology Geography Political Science Mathematics Computer Science. History of Oceanography. Early Age of Discovery Science and the Oceans Modern Oceanography

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introduction

Introduction

Course overview

History of Oceanography

interdisciplinary
Interdisciplinary
  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Geology
  • Geography
  • Political Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
history of oceanography
History of Oceanography
  • Early
  • Age of Discovery
  • Science and the Oceans
  • Modern Oceanography
  • Different motivations at different times
early history
Early history
  • Reasons: trade, fishing, defense

Self centered view of Earth

  • Examples
early history 2
Early history (2)

Difficult to navigate without shorelines

  • Phoenicians (approx. 1000 BC)
  • Polynesians (300-600 AD most important)
early history 3
Early history (3)
  • Greeks (approx. 500 BC)
    • Erasthosthenes (working in Egypt) – circumference of earth
    • Pliny the Elder – phases of moon and tides
    • Ptolemy(approx. 150 AD) – vast ocean, used lat and long
  • Middle Ages: very little exploration except
    • Vikings (approx. 1000 AD)
    • Arabs
age of discovery 1
Age of Discovery (1)
  • Travel for economic, political and religious reasons
  • Portugal:
    • Prince Henry
    • Dias (1497)
    • Vasco Da Gama (1498)
age of discovery 2
Age of Discovery (2)

Spain

  • Columbus (1492)
  • Vespucci (~1500)
  • Balboa (1513)
  • Magellan (1522)
age of discovery 3
Age of Discovery (3)

Discovery with some science

  • James Cook (1768-1780)
    • Endeavour, Resolution, Adventure
  • Ben Franklin (1769)
  • Matthew F. Maury (early 1800s)
purely scientific
Purely scientific
  • Challenger Expedition (1872-1876)
  • Extremely significant
more for science
More for science
  • Voyages of Nansen aboard Fram (end of 1800s)
  • Meteor expedition (1925-27)
modern oceanography 20 th century
Modern Oceanography (20th century)
  • International
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Scientific
  • Complex instruments
  • “Modern” technology
modern oceanography
Modern Oceanography
  • US funding – NSF, ONR, NOAA
  • Oceanographic institutes
  • Drill ships, satellites, for example
  • International cooperation
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