Africa
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AFRICA. Jambo - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUrVeRGo5IM&feature=related Lion Sleeps - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNXRn8d9jlk&feature=related Zimbabwe - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDTyfm7Rp1g. X. LOGISTICS - Field Trips. travel in two rental vans

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Africa

AFRICA

Jambo - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUrVeRGo5IM&feature=related

Lion Sleeps - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNXRn8d9jlk&feature=related

Zimbabwe - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDTyfm7Rp1g


Africa

X

LOGISTICS - Field Trips

  • travel in two

  • rental vans

  • 10 participants in each van

  • lottery next Monday morning for

  • all three trips (Nov 5, 12, 19)

  • - bring sack lunch

  • (drinks provided)

  • - $15 for transport & drinks


Africa

LOGISTICS - Field Trips

Monday, November 5th

- 9:00am-5:00pm

- by bus

- 50 participants

- $ ?? Inclusive

“Amazing Geology of Georgetown”

- visit local geologic sites with Dr. ‘D’

- lunch at the French Quarter Grill

- afternoon tour of Inner Space Caverns


Africa

Please . . . .


Africa

Vagabonds Tramping

Through

East Africa


Africa

ZIMBABWE

EAST AFRICA

EGYPT

Vagabonds Tramping

Through

East Africa

Week 6: Egypt

Week 5: Kenya

KENYA

Week 4: Tanzania (2)

TANZANIA

Week 3: Tanzania (1)

ANGOLA

Week 2: Zimbabwe

ZIMBABWE

Week 1: living in Africa

SOUTH

AFRICA


Africa

ZIMBABWE

TODAY’S TOPICS

Zambezi River & Victoria Falls

Overview

Zimbabwe

Geography & Statistics

Hwange National Park


Africa

ZIMBABWE

OVERVIEW

Series Notes

Africa Overview


Africa

ZIMBABWE


Africa

  • Series Notes

  • My slides violate the norm

  • Vagabond’s Role

  • Geologic Study & Extra Material

  • Hidden Agenda

  • GEOLOGIC STUDY

  • The following chart shows the topics of geology study

  • We will cover, to varying depths, most of the topics shown on this chart

  • As time permits, we will develop additional material on some topics to provide added depth of study

  • THE VAGABOND’S ROLE

  • Our role in these classes is to introduce GEOLOGY not just as an academic study but to show how pervasive GEOLOGY is, particularly, how it relates to most if not all of your travels

  • It’s processes have formed most of what we go to see & do

  • Geology Rocks!

  • OUR HIDDEN AGENDA

  • To show you how interesting science, and in particular, geology, can be in the hopes that you will spread the word to your grandchildren & great-grand-children!

  • Our future will have a high demand for science & math oriented graduates!

  • SLIDES

  • I include more text on each slide than what is the norm in the business of presentations

  • I do that so that if you want to review something, the text of most of what I talk about is there

  • To help during the class, I underline the important points on the slide


Africa

VAGABONDS TRAMP THRU EAST AFRICA

Africa Overview


Africa

AFRICA OVERVIEW

54 fully recognized sovereign states ("countries") and 9 territories

World’s largest international aid recipient

Although it has abundant natural resources, Africa remains the world's poorest and most underdeveloped continent

  • Causes for this dismal situation may include:

  • Endemic spread of deadly diseases

  • Repeated corrupt governments and failed central planning

  • All to frequent tribal and military conflicts

  • Seemingly unchangeable high levels of illiteracy

  • Lack of access to foreign capital

  • And lastly, geography (as Dr. D will explain later)


Africa

AFRICA GEOGRAPHY

Continent is 4550 miles wide by 4900 miles long

Only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones

Covers 20.4 percent of the Earth's total land area

4550 miles

4900 miles

X

Northern Temperate Zone

Contains the world’s longest river: The Nile

Contains the world’s largest desert: The Sahara

Highest point on the continent is: Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania)

Lowest point on the continent is Lake Assal (Djibouti)

Africa is the hottest continent on earth (Libya 136 deg F); drylands and deserts comprise 60% of the continent’s land surface

Deforestation is affecting Africa at twice the world rate

Southern Temperate Zone

S A H A R A


Africa

AFRICA POPULATION

World's second-most-populous continent behind Asia

NORTH AMERICA

EUROPE

ASIA

AFRICA

SOUTH

AMERICA

AUSTRALIA

ANARCTICA

Land Area

Population

Area Pop.

Area Pop.

Area Pop.

Area Pop.

Area Pop.

Area Pop.

Area Pop.

ASIA

AFRICA

N.A.

S.A.

ANT- ARCTIC

EUROPE

AUSTR.


Africa

AFRICA POPULATION

World's second-most-populous continent behind Asia

Population grew from 221 million in 1950 to 1 billion in 2009;

a 2.6% annual compound rate

Accounts for 14.8% of the world's human population

World’s most fertile continent; 5 children per woman

World’s highest infant mortality rate

World’s highest AIDS rate

80.5% of the Sub-Saharan Africa population was living on less than $2.50 a day in 2005

By some counts, over 3000 languages are spoken natively in Africa


Africa

AFRICAN MINERALS

Continent is believed to hold

The DRC also has more than 30% of the world’s diamond reserves

Guinea is the world’s largest exporter of bauxite


Africa

AFRICA

SOURCE: ORIGINS OF MAN

Widely regarded within the scientific community to be the origin of humans and the earliest hominids and their ancestors

Earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago


Africa

ZIMBABWE

TODAY’S TOPICS

Zambezi River & Victoria Falls

Overview

Zimbabwe

Geography & Statistics

Hwange National Park


Africa

ZIMBABWE GEOGRAPHY

& POLITICS


Africa

ZIMBABWE GEOGRAPHY

Landlocked and

surrounded by 4 countries


Africa

ZIMBABWE GEOGRAPHY

Zambia

Mozambique

440 miles

530 miles

151,000 sq. miles

(1/2 that of Texas)

Botswana

South Africa


Africa

ZIMBABWE HIGHLIGHTS

Zambia

Mozambique

Botswana

South Africa


Africa

ZIMBABWE HIGHLIGHTS


Africa

ZIMBABWE POLITICAL

  • The name “Zimbabwe” based on a Shona name for a famous ruined ancient city (UNESCO World Heritage Site)

  • Predominantly white minority govt of Rhodesia, unilaterally declared independence from Britain in 1965

  • Zimbabwe achieved recognised independence in April 1980

  • Robert Mugabe, former leader of the Zimbabwean African National Union from 1975, won a landslide victory in 1980

  • Tribal unrest between 1981 & 1990 killed an estimated 20,000+ Zimbabweans


Africa

ZIMBABWE POLITICAL

  • Robert Mugabe, 88; President 4 times

  • widely accused of ethnic cleansing, rigging elections, terrorizing opposition, controlling media and presiding over a collapsed economy

  • He’s been named one of the world’s “worst dictators” for having a questionable human rights record

  • Supported killing of white, Zimbabwean farmers & gave their farms to his supporters

  • He is banned from traveling to Europe but can & has traveled to the USA

  • In an odd announcement, United Nations recently endorsed Mugabe and his regime as a “leader for tourism”


Africa

ZIMBABWE DEMOGRAPHIC

& ECONOMIC STATISTICS


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STATISTICAL COMPARISON


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STATISTICAL COMPARISON

Mugabe takes over,

Internal Fighting

Mugabe dictatorship rule/

support of DRC war

War ended


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STATISTICAL COMPARISON


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STATISTICAL COMPARISON

38.7 yrs

45.7 yrs

English

mining:

diamonds

& COAL


Africa

OTHER ECONOMIC DATA

  • After the start of Mugabe’s reign, inflation slowly started to get out of control

  • Zimbabwe’s participation in tribal fighting in DRC and in 2000 started printing money to finance that effort which lead to HYPERINFLATION

  • The peak month of hyperinflation occurred in mid-November 2008 with a rate of inflation estimated at

  • 79,600,000% per month

  • The worst of the inflation occurred in 2008, lead to the abandonment of the Zimbabwean currency

  • USD and South African RAND are now used as trading currencies


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OTHER ECONOMIC DATA

This finishes our statistical comparison but stay tuned!


Africa

ZIMBABWE

TODAY’S TOPICS

Zambezi River & Victoria Falls

Overview

Zimbabwe

Geography & Statistics

Hwange National Park


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

ZAMBIA

Zambezi River

Victoria Falls

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

The Hide


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

ZAMBIA

Zambezi River

Victoria Falls

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

The Hide


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

  • It is the largest game reserve

  • in Zimbabwe

  • Park has over:

  • 100 mammal

  • 400 bird species

  • 19 large herbivores

  • 8 large carnivores

GEOLOGY SOILS PLANT LIFE ANIMALS

Hwange National Park includes many diverse habitats including teak forests, palm islands, Kalahari savannah and acacia woodlands.

  • It was royal hunting grounds to the Ndebele warrior-king Mzilikazi in the early 19 th Century and was set aside in 1929

  • population of African wild dogs in Hwange is thought to be of one of the larger surviving groups in Africa today

  • Hwange is about 1 hour south of Victoria Falls

  • This area is a malarial area; dry season is July to September


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HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

2003

The Hide


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HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

2012


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK


Africa

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK


Africa

ZIMBABWE

TODAY’S TOPICS

Zambezi River & Victoria Falls

Overview

Zimbabwe

Geography & Statistics

Hwange National Park


Africa

ZAMBEZI

RIVER


Africa

ZAMBEZI RIVER

  • River source is in Zambia at 4,900 ft above sea level

  • Fourth-longest river in Africa at 1,700 miles

  • Largest river flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa

  • Drainage basin 540,000 sq mi

  • two main hydroelectric dams; Kariba Dam between Zambia & Zimbabwe & Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique


Africa

ZAMBEZI RIVER

  • River source is in Zambia at 4,900 ft above sea level

  • Fourth-longest river in Africa at 2,200 miles

  • Largest river flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa

  • Drainage basin 540,000 sq mi

  • two main hydroelectric dams; Kariba Dam between Zambia & Zimbabwe & Cahora Bassa Dam in Mozambique


Africa

  • Starts in Zambia, flows through eastern Angola, along the eastern border of Namibia and the northern border of Botswana, then along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe to Mozambique, where it crosses that country to empty into the Indian Ocean


Paleo zambezi route

PALEO-ZAMBEZI ROUTE

BUT,

THE STORY GETS EVEN BETTER!

BUT,

The Zambezi didn’t always flow this way…

Let’s look at it’s route

15 million yrs ago!

Strange, upward forces formed a ridge, Kalahari-Zimbabwe Axis

The Zambezi starting filling the newly created depression

Ancient Lake Makgadikgadi was formed

Ancient

Lake

Makgadikgadi

Lake runoff finally created an outlet near Katombora, creating the Zambezi’s current route & residual Makgadikgadi Pans


Africa

ZAMBEZI RIVER


Africa

VICTORIA

FALLS


Africa

“MOSI OA TUNYA” (VICTORIA FALLS)

In the rainy season, this is the largest “curtain” of water in the world!

5840 ft wide

360 FT drop,

twice that of

Niagara Falls

430 ft

apart


Africa

“MOSI OA TUNYA” (VICTORIA FALLS)


Africa

BASALT ROCK,

CLUE TO THE PAST


Victoria falls rocks

VICTORIA FALLS ROCKS

  • Rocks around Vic Falls are BASALT rocks

  • Don talked last week about the ROCK CYCLE and the 3 TYPES OF ROCK:

  • _________, ___________, _________

  • BASALT is one type of IGNEOUS rock

  • BASALT is a rock composed of low quartz, melted oceanic crust material

  • BASALT is “lava” that doesn’t explode onto the surface; it oozes…

Sedimentary

Metamorphic

Igneous

BASALT ROCK


A little geologic history

A LITTLE GEOLOGIC HISTORY


Source of basalt

SOURCE OF BASALT

  • 250 mya, “Pangea” formed, a “super-continent with all earth’s continents grouped together

  • Started assembly ~ 300 mya; started breaking apart ~ 180 mya

  • During breakup, massive “volcanoes” formed near “RIP” zones

  • molten mantle poured out, on and off, for at least a million years

  • Basalt is 1,000 ft thick at Victoria Falls & up to 27,000 ft thick at other locations


Extent of basalt

EXTENT OF BASALT

120 miles

Victoria Falls


Africa

BASALT COOLING,

“JOINTS”


Africa

MORE THAN ONE VICTORIA FALLS?

Zambezi River

Victoria Falls


Africa

MORE THAN ONE VICTORIA FALLS?

1) WHAT ARE THESE THING AND

2) ARE THEY INFLUENCING THE PATH OF THE ZAMBEZI??

LET’S PULL BACK AND SEE A MUCH LARGER VIEW


More than one victoria falls

MORE THAN ONE VICTORIA FALLS?

ON CLOSER INSPECTION WE CAN SEE THAT THEY ARE “COOLING CRACKS” (JOINTS) THAT FORMED AS THE MOLTEN BASALT COOLED

THE “CRACKS” WERE WIDENED 110MYA DURING BREAKUP OF GODWANA

THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF THESE “THINGS”;

WHAT ARE THEY?

THE “CRACKS” HAVE BEEN FILLED IN WITH EROSIONAL DEBRIS FROM MILLIONS OF YEARS OF EROSION


More than one victoria falls1

MORE THAN ONE VICTORIA FALLS?


Several other falls existed

SEVERAL OTHER FALLS EXISTED!


Next erosional channel

NEXT EROSIONAL CHANNEL

DEVIL’S CATARACT, MOST WESTERN PART OF FALLS

  • 2 additional joints have been identified behind the main Fall curtain

  • Within 20,000 yrs, one of these joints will form the “NEW” Victoria Falls


Africa

VICTORIA FALLS

SAFARI LODGE


Africa

VICTORIA FALLS SAFARI LODGE

VICTORIA FALLS SAFARI LODGE


Africa

VICTORIA FALLS SAFARI LODGE

VICTORIA FALLS SAFARI LODGE


Africa

VICTORIA FALLS SAFARI LODGE

VICTORIA FALLS SAFARI LODGE


Africa

WHITE WATER

RAFTING


White water rafting

WHITE WATER RAFTING


Oh zambezi also has good fishing

Oh, Zambezi also has good fishing!


Africa

BUNGEE

JUMP


Bungee jump

BUNGEE JUMP


Bungee jump1

BUNGEE JUMP


Africa

“MOSI OA TUNYA” (VICTORIA FALLS)


Africa

ZIMBABWE

TODAY’S TOPICS

Zambezi River & Victoria Falls

Overview

Zimbabwe

Geography & Statistics

Hwange National Park


Africa

whatever. . .

Next week – Session 3

Mt Kilamanjaro

The Serengeti

Tanzania


Africa

ZIMBABWE

All class material either is or

will be on

1) the University’s website

and on

2) Our website at:

www.vagabondgeology.com

ANY QUESTIONS??


Africa

ZIMBABWE

REMEMBER…

GEOLOGY ROCKS

THANK YOU!


Africa

REFERENCES


Africa

REFERENCES

“PLATES 2006 Atlas of Plate Reconstructions (750 Ma to Present Day)”, L.A. Lawver, I.W.D. Dalziel, and L.M. Gahagan, 2007, University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, March 8, 2007

songs

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUrVeRGo5IM&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUvo6vrIzkg&feature=related

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNXRn8d9jlk&feature=related

videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDTyfm7Rp1g

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=r1inueBSwko

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=6Jz5s6YlD2U

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=gvXV17yWNtg


Africa

Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry,

and narrow-mindedness… 

Broad, wholesome, charitable views of men and things cannot be acquired by vegetating in one little corner of the earth all one's lifetime. 

~Mark Twain


Africa

“Twenty years from now

you will be more disappointed by the things you didn’t do than by the ones you did do. So throw off the bowlines, sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails.

Explore. Dream. Discover.”

– Mark Twain


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