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Intonation. English Phonetics and Phonology Lesson 6A. The functions of intonation. Attitudinal function Accentual function Grammatical function Discourse function. Speech may be divided into tone units. Each tone unit is composed of:. A tonic syllable (obbligatory)

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Intonation l.jpg

Intonation

English Phonetics and Phonology

Lesson 6A


The functions of intonation l.jpg
The functions of intonation

  • Attitudinal function

  • Accentual function

  • Grammatical function

  • Discourse function


Speech may be divided into tone units each tone unit is composed of l.jpg
Speech may be divided into tone units.Each tone unit is composed of:

  • A tonic syllable (obbligatory)

  • Optional elements which precede the tonic syllable (pre-head, head)

  • Optional elements which follow the tonic syllable (tail)


In short l.jpg

In short:

(pre-head) + (head) + tonic syllable + (tail)


We will begin by looking at the tonic syllable it may follow one of these intonation patterns l.jpg
We will begin by looking at the tonic syllable, it may follow one of these intonation patterns

  • Fall

  • Rise

  • Fall-Rise

  • Rise-Fall

  • Level


Each of these may express particular attitudes l.jpg
Each of these may express particular follow one of these intonation patternsattitudes

  • Fall: neutral statement

  • Rise: neutral question, doubt

  • Fall-Rise: surprise, scepticism

  • Rise-Fall: emphatic statement

  • Level: boredom, disinterest


Fall neutral statement conclusion l.jpg
Fall: neutral statement, conclusion follow one of these intonation patterns

  • E.g. Have you seen Ann?

  • Yes. (Falling intonation indicates ‘I have answered your question and do not intend to add anything else’)


Rise questioning doubt desire to continue conversation l.jpg
Rise: questioning, doubt, desire to continue conversation follow one of these intonation patterns

  • E.g. Have you seen Ann lately?

  • Yes… (Rising intonation indicates ‘I want to continue the conversation, I am curious’)


Rise fall emphatic statement irritation command l.jpg
Rise-Fall: emphatic statement, irritation, command follow one of these intonation patterns

  • Do I really have to clean my room?

  • Yes!


Fall rise surprise scepticism l.jpg
Fall-Rise: surprise, scepticism follow one of these intonation patterns

  • Ann and Peter were on good terms at the party

  • Oh yes?


Level boredom lack of interest l.jpg
Level: boredom, lack of interest follow one of these intonation patterns

  • Can you remember Peter Jackson, the cost consultant for our company in Taiwan? The other day in the office I invited him for dinner, he’ll be coming tomorrow.

  • Yes.



Things become more complicated when we add syllables l.jpg
Things become more complicated when we add syllables solely composed of a tonic syllable


In this case there are no stressed syllables before the tonic i said is the pre head l.jpg
In this case there are no stressed syllables before the tonic: ‘I said’ is the pre-head


Slide15 l.jpg

Here we have added a stressed syllable, ‘told’, before the tonic, which is called the head. Notice how the intonation rises from the pre-head.


Slide16 l.jpg
Here we have added syllables after the tonic, this is called the tail. Note how it tends to follow the intonation pattern of the tonic.


Slide17 l.jpg

This is obviously not the only possible realisation of this sentence. If we put the main stress on ‘told’, it changes the pattern completely.


In a similar way a rising tonic syllable will condition its tail here when is the tonic syllable l.jpg
In a similar way a rising tonic syllable will condition its tail: here ‘when’ is the tonic syllable


Slide19 l.jpg

Again when we come to complex tone we find the tail following the tonic syllable: for a fall-rise the fall occurs on the tonic and the rise at the end of the tail



Slide21 l.jpg
While diagrams are immediate and clear, a more practical system of symbols has been developed to denote innotation


Stressed syllables in the head are noted with a vertical tick l.jpg
Stressed syllables in the head are noted with a vertical tick

  • I want to ’ go to the ‘ dentists.


Stressed syllables in the tail are noted with a dot l.jpg
Stressed syllables in the tail are noted with a dot tick

  • I want to ‘ go to the ‘ dentists to.morrow .morning


How to analyse a tone unit l.jpg
How to analyse a tone unit tick

  • Identify the tonic (syllable) , i.e. the syllable where there is strong movement and stress)

  • Are there any other stressed syllables before the tonic?

    - no: the area before the tonic is called the “pre-head”

    - yes: the area between the stressed syllable and tonic is called the “head” and the area before the stressed syllable is the “pre-head”

  • Are there any words after the tonic? If yes, this is the tail


Esonero lingua inglese 1 moduloa b l.jpg
ESONERO LINGUA INGLESE 1 MODULOA+B tick

  • LUNEDI 15 DICEMBRE

  • ORE 10 - A-L

  • ORE 11 - MZ


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