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English / Language Arts Review of Commonly Tested Skills. Education Access Network (EAN) Linda Coleman & Kristie English Website: http://www.EducationAccessNetwork.org. Reading Comprehension Listening Inferential Thinking Vocabulary Grammar Literature Poetry. Functional Texts

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english language arts review of commonly tested skills

English / Language Arts Review of Commonly Tested Skills

Education Access Network (EAN)

Linda Coleman & Kristie English

Website:http://www.EducationAccessNetwork.org

what will we talk about
Reading Comprehension

Listening

Inferential Thinking

Vocabulary

Grammar

Literature

Poetry

Functional Texts

Graphic Organizers

Nonfiction

Comparing & Contrasting

Writing Process

Essay Writing

What will we talk about?
reading comprehension why is it important
Reading Comprehension: Why is it important?

Academic Subjects: Math, Science, History, Social Studies, and English classes all require us to read well.

Testing: PSAT, SAT I, ACT, WASL, etc.

Writing: Reading helps writing. College Admissions “Personal Statement” Essay

reading comprehension

Important Details

Summarizing

Reading Comprehension

Main Idea

Author’s Purpose

main idea what is the author saying about the topic
Main IdeaWhat is the author saying about the topic?

TOPIC

FREEDOM

Freedom always comes with a price.

MAIN IDEA

Freedom is a recurring theme in American literature.

Freedom is the most precious gift of all.

2 Ws

Who: Subject

What: Action

author s purpose fiction why questions

?

Author’s Purpose(Fiction)“Why?” Questions
  • Why was he/she chosen to be the main character?
  • Why does he/she act and speak this way?
  • Why here? (setting chosen)
  • Why now? (time period chosen)

Investigate!

author s purpose nonfiction questions to ask
What does the author want me to know about this topic?

Why is it important that I know this?

What does the author want me to do with this knowledge?

Possible Purposes:

To Inform

To Persuade

To Change Your Opinion

Author’s Purpose(Nonfiction)Questions to Ask
the message
Fiction (implicit)

Does the main character change in some important way?

Does s/he learn anything important?

How would I explain this story to another person?

Nonfiction (explicit)

What has the author demonstrated or proved?

Often this is located at the end of the writing piece.

The Message
important details showing not telling
Important Details!Showing, not Telling

Nonfiction

  • Nonfiction: Details SUPPORT the main idea
  • Fiction: Details ILLUSTRATE or bring to LIFE the main idea

Unimportant Details: May be interesting, but don’t provide examples or offer proof.

    • Add Interest and Color to the Story

Fiction

summarizing
Summarizing
  • Identify the main idea.
  • Include details that support the main idea.
  • Use your own words.
  • Keep it short and to the point.

Writing Summaries – Tips to Remember

listening
Listening
  • Active Listening helps you take notes in class.
  • Why is it so difficult to listen actively?
    • Visual Reliance (T.V., video games, etc.)
    • Continuous Attention Span Required
    • Society is used to multi-tasking, switching from one idea to the next, quickly and frequently
    • “Big Picture” is lost in the Details
when is listening critical
When is Listening Critical?

Communicating with Friends

Taking Notes in Class

Listening Tips:

  • Listen for SEQUENCE
    • Can’t reread for clarification
    • Order of Events, Mental Outline
    • Note Actual Chronology (time), not Order of Narration (as told)
  • Listen for DETAILS
    • Important details may not always be “interesting” to you.
thought focus questions
Thought & Focus Questions

What am I listening to?

Lecture? Joke? Directions?

Why am I listening to it?

Collect facts? Follow an argument?

Follow a character through a story’s plot?

What am I supposed to do with it?

Hmmm…

inferential thinking
Inferential Thinking
  • Definition: Educated guesses or assumptions based on evidence; “Reading between the lines” of text
  • Types of Inferences
      • General Inference (figure out what’s left unsaid or undone)
      • Prediction (what will happen next)
      • Conclusion (figure out larger meaning of what we’ve read)
      • Cause and Effect (why certain events happen)
general inferences 4 types
General Inferences (4 Types)

1) Tone

Clue: Its feeling or mood. Use descriptions of sights, sounds, smells, and other sense images.

2) Point of View

Clue: Voice of story. Personal point of view (“I”) is called first person.

3) What is NOT Said

Clue: What does the character want to say, but does not say?

4) What is NOT Done

Clue: What does the character want to do, but does not do?

predicting
Predicting
  • Fictional Story Clues ~ Know the character! How do they typically act?

Nonfiction Passage Clues ~ Facts and arguments. Imagine the effect of some condition, action, or trend.

* Often used in persuasive writing, editorial columns

conclusion
Conclusion

What message can be drawn from the story’s events?

  • If Fictional: What lesson or moral was learned?
  • If Essay or Article: What is the final argument or position on the issue?
vocabulary
VOCABULARY

Don’t dread it. Use it to your advantage!

VOCABULARY

vocabulary1
Vocabulary
  • Word Parts (prefix, suffix, root)
  • Context (positive, negative, angry, happy, etc.)
  • Multiple Meanings of Words (Which one is appropriate for this situation?)
derivations the word s history dictionary tender 1 st meaning
Derivations / The Word’s HistoryDictionary – Tender (1st meaning)

ten·der 1  Pronunciation (…) adj.ten·der·er,ten·der·est

1)

a) Easily crushed or bruised; fragile: a tender petal.

b) Easily chewed or cut: tender beef.

2) Young and vulnerable: of tender age.

3) Frail; delicate.

4) Sensitive to frost or severe cold; not hardy: tender green shoots.

5)

a) Easily hurt; sensitive: tender skin.

b) Painful; sore: a tender tooth.

6)

a) Considerate and protective; solicitous: a tender mother; his tender concern.

b) Characterized by or expressing gentle emotions; loving: a tender glance; a tender ballad.

c) Given to sympathy or sentimentality; soft: a tender heart.

7)Nautical. Likely to heel easily under sail; crank.

dictionary tender 2 nd meaning
Dictionary – Tender (2nd meaning)

ten·der 2   pronunciation (…)

1) A formal offer, as:

a) Law. An offer of money or service in payment of an obligation.

b) A written offer to contract goods or services at a specified cost or rate; a bid.

2) Something, especially money, offered in payment.

tr.v.ten·dered,ten·der·ing,ten·ders

  • To offer formally: tender a letter of resignation. See Synonyms at offer.

[From French tendre, to offer, from Old French, from Latin tendere, to hold forth, extend. See ten- in Indo-European Roots.]

dictionary tender 3 rd meaning
Dictionary – Tender (3rd meaning)

tend·er 3Pronunciation (… ) n.

1) One who tends something: a lathe tender.

2)Nautical. A vessel attendant on other vessels, especially one that ferries supplies between ship and shore.

3) A railroad car attached to the rear of a locomotive and designed to carry fuel and water.

grammar writing mechanics
Grammar & Writing Mechanics
  • Parts of Speech
  • Subject – Verb Agreement
  • Fragments and Run-Ons
  • Capitalization and Punctuation
literary texts types of stories
Folktales(types)

Myths

Answer How and Why ?s

Legends

Exaggerated stories about, real, historical figures

Fairy Tales

Heroic adventures

Fables

Teach moral lessons

Fiction(several genres or categories)

Historical Fiction

Biographical Fiction

Science Fiction

Mystery

Romance

Tragedy

Comedy

Satire

Literary Texts~ Types of Stories ~
literary devices
Literary Devices
  • Setting & Tone
  • Voice
  • Symbolism
  • Other Devices
    • Foreshadowing
    • Flashbacks
author s purpose forms of literature
Author’s Purpose ~ Forms of Literature ~
  • Short Story

Evoke emotional response. Snapshot, slice of life.

  • Novel

Create rich, detailed characters and complex, fictional world.

  • Drama

Rich, expressive dialogue.

how story s work the basic structure
How Story’s Work~ The Basic Structure ~

CLIMAX

COMPLICATIONS

RESOLUTION

SUSPENSE

(RISING ACTION)

THEME

EXPOSITION

poetic texts
Poetic Texts
  • What makes Poetry different from Prose (non-poetry)?
      • Written in verse, sets the rhythm (similar to song lyrics)
  • May be written in…
    • Classical Metered Verse
    • Blank Verse
    • Free Verse
poetry devices
Metaphor

Simile

Metonymy

Onomatopoeia

Personification

Hyperbole

Alliteration

Think About…

Why doesn’t the poet use more direct language?

Poetry communicates a series of sensory associations or feelings, not so much facts and dates.

Poetry Devices
structure poetry
Structure & Poetry
  • In poetry, the STRUCTURE is as essential as the text’s meaning
  • Poets consider meanings of words and sounds and rhythms.
  • Types of Poetry / Styles
      • Sonnets
      • Odes
      • Villanelles
      • Haiku
      • Epic Poems
      • Lyric Poems
      • Limericks
functional texts
Advertisements

Outlines (table of contents, indexes)

Instructions

Maps

Charts & Graphs

Glossaries

Recipes

Phone Books

Application Forms

Functional Texts

Provide efficient facts, info, or instructions.Tend to use bullet points, subheadings, and graphics

Types

graphic organizers
Graphic Organizers
  • Venn Diagrams
  • Sequence Charts
  • Webs
nonfiction
Nonfiction

Categories / Types of Nonfiction:

  • Informational
  • Biographical & Autobiographical
  • Editorial
  • Oral (speeches)
basic writing
1) Know Your Audience

2) Find Your Rhythm

3) Support Your

Arguments

4) Maintain Your Focus

Address Your Audience

What Do They Already Know?

Make Writing Flow (Transitions)

Enough Support, and Too Much

Arrange Details by:

- Importance

- Time

- Location

Basic Writing
slide39
Definition

Description

Narration

Compare &

Contrast

Process

Classification

Cause &

Effect

Persuasion

Provide an explanation

Illustrate a scene or idea

Tell a story

Find similarities or differences

Explain how task is completed

Place items into categories

Link events to their causes or explain effects of event

Argue position or point of view

Essay WritingEssay Topic Categories help determine the paper’s organization, info to include, and how to effectively use that info.
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