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Methods for collection, preservation, and sporulation of snake fecal stages to help resolve what we still don’t know about snake coccidia

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Methods for collection, preservation, and sporulation of snake fecal stages to help resolve what we still don’t know about snake coccidia. Steve J. Upton (Kansas State University) Donald W. Duszynski (University of New Mexico).

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slide1

Methods for collection, preservation,

and sporulation of snake fecal stages

to help resolve what we still don’t

know about snake coccidia

Steve J. Upton

(Kansas State University)

Donald W. Duszynski

(University of New Mexico)

slide2

Snake coccidia are usually treated like most other coccidia

1-3% potassium dichromate

in Petri dish. Check daily

You may have

problems with

some Sarcocystis spp.

You may have

problems with some

thin-walled eimerians

slide3

Only 4 snake families

seem have been examined “extensively” for coccidia

Boidae

Colubridae

Elapidae

Viperidae

slide4

Several coccidian genera

are easily recognizable in snakes

sporocysts/sporozoites

CaryosporaLeger 1904 (1 and 8)

EimeriaSchneider 1875 (4 and 8)

IsosporaSchneider 1881 (2 and 8)

SarcocystisLankester 1882 (2 and 8)

slide5

Cylindrical eimerian oocysts are common in all families of snakes

Eimeria bitis

(Bitis arietans)

Eimeria papillosum

(Salvadora grahamiae)

Eimeria “zamenis”

(Coluber contrictor)

slide6

All known ‘elongate’

species develop in

gall bladder

epithelium

They can

accumulate in

the gall bladder

in very large

numbers

slide8

Boidae

(19 host genera)

A. Caryospora epicratesi

B. Eimeria boae

D, E. Eimeria pythonis

F. Eimeria samyadeli

C. Tyzzeria boae

slide9

Elapidae

(63 host genera)

A. Caryospora cobrae

B. Caryospora constanciae

C. Caryospora micruri

D. Caryospora regentensis

E. Eimeria micruri

F. Eimeria najae

G. Caryospora demansiae

slide10

Viperidae

(Crotalinae)

A. Caryospora bigenetica

B. Caryospora jararacae

C. Caryospora jararacae

D. Eimeria amarali

E. Eimeria amareli

F. Eimeria bothropis

G. Eimeria cascabeli

slide11

Viperidae

(Viperinae)

A. Caryospora maculatus

B. Caryospora matatu

C. Caryospora simplex

D. Caryospora simplex

E. Caryospora maxima

F. Eimeria atheridis

G. Eimeria bitis

H. Eimeria cerastes

I. Isospora gursae

slide12

Colubridae

(331 host genera)

Generanamed species

Caryospora 30

Eimeria 40

Eimeria (elongate) 15+

Isospora 4

slide13

Few (true) isosporans seem to exist in snakes

Most described species are either

Sarcocystis or avian isosporans

slide14

Isospora colubris

from Hierophis viridiflavis

(syn. Coluber viridiflavis)

from Matuschka (1986) Parasitol Res 72: 549-551

Isospora wilsoni

from the colubrids

Tantilla gracilis & T. relicta

from Upton et al (1992) TAMS 111:50-60

slide15

Isospora guersae

Vipera lebatina (Viperidae)

(from Yakimoff & Matschoulsky 1937)

Isospora guzarica

Platyceps karelini (Colubridae)

(from Davronov 1985)

slide16

Some Sarcocystis described as isosporans

“Isospora minuta” DasGupta 1938

Naja naja (Elapidae)

“Isospora lenti” Pinto 1934

Bothrops jararaca (Viperidae)

slide17

More recent Sarcocystis descriptions

Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi Lainson & Paperna, 2000

Ameiva (Teiidae) / Mastigodryas (Colubridae)

Sarcocystis atheridis Slapeta et al 1999

Lemniscomys (Muridae) / Atheris (Viperidae)

slide19

Caryospora

Develop in snake

intestine

Develop in rodent

dermal tissues

Form transmissible

“caryocysts” (I)

slide21

Caryospora may have two lineages

Caryospora

bigenetica

Caryospora

duszynskii

Caryospora

peruensis

slide22

Summation of snake coccidia

Tends to be higher prevalence and diversity

in tropical (higher humidity) areas

Most snake coccidia tolerate 1-3% aqueous

potassium dichromate

Gall bladder eimerians common in all taxa

Caryospora / Sarcocystis common in all taxa

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