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ELED 132, Child Growth and Development. Dr. Andrew Whitehead More information at: www.esu.edu/~andrew. Information Processing Theory. Key ideas in Information Processing Theory Input from the environment provides the raw material for cognitive processing

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eled 132 child growth and development

ELED 132, Child Growth and Development

Dr. Andrew Whitehead

More information at: www.esu.edu/~andrew

information processing theory
Information Processing Theory
  • Key ideas in Information Processing Theory
    • Input from the environment provides the raw material for cognitive processing
      • Sensation – detecting stimuli in the environment
      • Perception – interpreting stimuli
      • Sensory register – mechanism allows for 2 – 3 seconds of memory
    • In addition to sensory register, human memory includes two other storage mechanisms: working memory and long term memory
      • Working-memory – 20-30 seconds
      • Long-term memory – many years
information processing theory3
Information Processing Theory
  • Key ideas in Information Processing Theory
    • Attention is essential to the learning process
    • A variety of cognitive processes are involved in moving information from working to long-term memory
    • People control how they process information
      • Central Executive – controls the flow of information
information processing theory4
Information Processing Theory
  • Key ideas in Information Processing Theory
    • Cognitive development involves gradual changes in various components of the information processing system
information processing theory5
Information Processing Theory
  • Sensation and Perception
    • Some sensory and perceptual capabilities are present from birth; others emerge within the first few weeks of months of life
    • Infants show consistent preferences for certain types of stimuli
    • Perceptual development is the result of both biological maturation and experience
information processing theory6
Information Processing Theory
  • Attention
    • Initially, attention is largely a function of the physical characteristics of stimuli and events; later, it also depends on children’s prior knowledge
    • Children attend differently to people than to inanimate objects
    • With age, distractibility decreases and sustained attention increases
    • Attention becomes increasingly purposeful
information processing theory7
Information Processing Theory
  • Working memory
    • Processing speed increases
      • Automatized – can be done quickly with little thought
    • Children acquire more effective cognitive processes
    • The physical capacity of working memory may increase somewhat
information processing theory8
Information Processing Theory
  • Long-Term Memory
    • The capacity to store information in long-term memory appears very early in life
    • Talking about objects and events facilitates memory for them
    • The amount of knowledge stored in long-term memory increases many times over
information processing theory9
Information Processing Theory
  • Long-Term Memory
    • Children’s knowledge about the world becomes increasingly integrated
      • Schemas – tightly organized bodies of knowledge
      • Scripts – knowledge about predictable sequences of events (like a wedding)
    • Children’s growing knowledge base facilitates more effective learning
information processing theory10
Information Processing Theory
  • Thinking and Reasoning
    • Thought becomes increasingly symbolic in nature
    • Logical thinking abilities improve with age
    • Gestures sometimes foreshadow the emergence of more sophisticated thinking and reasoning
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Implications of Information Processing Theory
    • Provide a variety of choices for infants and young children
    • Talk with children about their experiences
    • During the school years, keep unnecessary distractions to a minimum
    • Remember that human beings can think about only a small amount of information at any one time
    • Give children ongoing practice in using basic information and skills
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies12
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Implications of Information Processing Theory
    • Consider not only what children say, but also what they do when determining what they are ready to learn
    • Relate new information to children’s existing knowledge
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies13
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Metagcognition – thinking about thinking
  • Learning Strategies
    • Rehearsal
    • Organization – finding interrelationships
    • Elaboration – using prior knowledge to expand on new information
    • Environmental and cultural influences on learning strategy development
      • Different cultures are different
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies14
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Problem – Solving Strategies
    • Develop with time
  • Strategy Development as “Overlapping Waves”
  • Metacognitive Awareness
    • Awareness of the existence of thought
    • Awareness of one’s own thought process
    • Awareness of memory limitations
    • Knowledge about effective learning and memory strategies
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies15
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Self-Regulated Learning
    • Attention control
    • Monitoring progress toward goals
    • Evaluating the effectiveness of learning strategies
    • Co-regulation as a facilitator of self-regulation
      • Teacher and learner share responsibility
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies16
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Epistemological Beliefs
    • Beliefs regarding the nature of knowledge and the knowledge acquisition
  • Interdependence of Cognitive and Metacognitive Processes
development of metacognition and cognitive strategies17
Development of Metacognition and Cognitive Strategies
  • Implications of Metacognition and Strategic Development
    • Model and teach effective problem-solving and learning strategies
    • Give children frequent feedback
    • Provide opportunities for students to evaluate their own learning
    • Expect and encourage independent learning
    • Promote more sophisticated epistemological beliefs
      • Teachers must communicate not only in what they say but in what they do
information processing theory18
Information Processing Theory
  • Implications of Information Processing Theory
    • Video – Parent to Parent: Learning Disabilities
      • How does this relate to Information Processing Theory?
exceptionalities in information processing
Exceptionalities in Information Processing
  • Learning Disabilities
    • The child has significant difficulties in one or more specific cognitive processes
    • The child’s difficulties cannot be attributed to other disabilities, such as mental retardation, an emotional or behavioral disorder, hearing loss or a visual impairment
    • The child’s difficulties interfere with academic achievement to such a degree that special education services are warranted
    • Website
      • www.ldonline.org
exceptionalities in information processing20
Exceptionalities in Information Processing
  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    • Attention problem
      • Distractibility
      • Impulsivity
      • Hyperactivity
    • Websites
      • www.add.org
      • www.chadd.org
exceptionalities in information processing21
Exceptionalities in Information Processing
  • Autism
    • Characterized by infrequent social interaction, little awareness of one’s own and other’s thoughts, communications impairments, repetitive behaviors, narrowly focused interests and a strong need for a predictable environment
    • Website
      • www.autism-society.org
children s construction of theories
Children’s Construction of Theories
  • Theory theory
    • Children construct integrated and complex understandings
  • Children’s Theories of the Physical World
    • Children know a great deal about the physical world (likely biological in nature)
    • Some beliefs are wrong
children s construction of theories23
Children’s Construction of Theories
  • Implications of Theory Theory
    • Encourage and answer children’s “why” and “how” questions
    • When teaching a new topic, determine what students already know and believe about the topic
    • When students have misconceptions about a topic, work actively to help them acquire more accurate understandings
neo piagetian approaches to cognitive development
Neo-Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development
  • Key Ideas in Neo-Piagetian Theories
    • Children acquire general structures that pervade their thinking in particular content domains
    • Cognitive development is constrained by the maturation of information processing mechanisms
    • Formal schooling has a greater influence on cognitive development than Piaget believed
    • Development in specific content domains can be characterized as a series of stages
neo piagetian approaches to cognitive development25
Neo-Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development
  • Development of Central Conceptual Structures: Case’s Theory
    • Central conceptual structure – integrated network of concepts and cognitive processes that forms the basis for much of one’s thinking, reasoning and learning in specific content domains
neo piagetian approaches to cognitive development26
Neo-Piagetian Approaches to Cognitive Development
  • Implications of Neo-Piagetian Theories
    • Don’t predict students’ performance in one domain based on their performance in a very different domain
    • Identify and teach concepts and skills central to students’ understanding of a particular content area
adding a sociocultural element to information processing theory
Adding a Sociocultural Element to Information Processing Theory
  • Intersubjectivity
    • Shared understanding that provide the foundation for social interaction and communication
  • Social Construction of Memory
  • Joint Use of Cognitive Strategies
information processing and metacognition group activity
Information Processing and Metacognition Group Activity
  • Group work
  • What are some things you might do to help a learning disabled student, a student with ADD/ADHD, or an autistic student?
    • What types of activities would do?
    • Are there any special types of considerations you would make? - i.e. – seating arrangements
exceptionalities in information processing29
Exceptionalities in Information Processing
  • Working with Children who have Information Processing Difficulties
    • Help children keep their attention on the task at hand
    • Teach strategies for controlling hyperactivity and impulsivity
    • Provide extra scaffolding for studying, doing homework and completing other learning tasks
    • Keep the daily schedule and physical environment relatively predicable
    • Teach social skills
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