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Chapter 4 . Biodiversity and Evolution . What is biodiversity and why is it important . Section 4.1. Core Case Study : Why should we protect sharks . Sharks play a crucial role in the oceanic world and many are killed because we fear them or for there meat, skin, and livers. .

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Biodiversity and Evolution



Core case study why should we protect sharks
Core Case Study : Why should we protect sharks

  • Sharks play a crucial role in the oceanic world and many are killed because we fear them or for there meat, skin, and livers.


Biodiversity is a crucial part of the earth s natural capital
Biodiversity Is a Crucial Part of the Earth’s Natural Capital

  • Biological diversity/ biodiversity: variety of the earths species or varying life-forms the genes they contain the ecosystems in which they live, and the ecosystem processes of energy flow and nutrient cycling that sustain all life

  • Species: set of individuals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.

    • Estimated that there are 10-14 million species

    • Up to half of the worlds plant and animal species live in tropical rain forest


Species diversity
Species diversity Capital

  • Genetic Diversity: enables life on the earth to adapt to and survive dramatic environmental changes

  • Ecosystem Diversity: earths variety of deserts, grasslands, forest, mountains, oceans, lakes, rivers, and wetlands

    • Each of these ecosystems is a storehouse of genetic and species biodiversity

  • Biomes: large regions such as forest, deserts, and grasslands with distinct climates and certain species (especially vegetation) adapted to them


Biodiversity
Biodiversity Capital

  • Functional Diversity: the variety of processes such as energy flow and matter cycling that occur within ecosystems as species interact with one another in food chains and webs.

  • The earths biodiversity is a vital part of the natural capital

    • Keeps us alive/ supports economy


Biodiversity provides
Biodiversity Provides Capital

  • Biodiversity is used to provide

    • Food

    • Wood/ energy from it

    • Fibers

    • Biofuels

    • Medicines

  • Plays a critical role in preserving the quality of the air/water maintaining fertility of topsoil, decomposing and recycling waste, and controlling populations of species that humans consider to pest

  • Helps sustain life on earth



Biological evolution by natural selection explains how life changed over time
Biological Evolution by Natural Selection Explains How life Changed over Time

  • Most of what we know from earths history comes from fossils

  • Fossils: mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons bones teeth, shells, leaves, and seeds, or impressions of such items found in rocks

  • Fossil Record: entire body of evidence gathered using these methods which is uneven and incomplete

    • Fossils found so far represent 1% of all species that have ever lived

  • Biological evolution: the process whereby earth’s life changes over time through changes in the genetic characteristics of populations.


Darwin and wallace
Darwin and Wallace Changed over Time

  • Independently proposed the concept of natural selection as a mechanism for biological evolution

  • Observed that individual organisms must struggle constantly to survive by getting food, water, and other resources.

  • Based on the observations they described a process known as natural selection:

    • Individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce under a particular set of environmental conditions than are those without traits.

  • Biological Evolution through Natural Selection has become an important scientific theory that explains how life is so diverse today.


Evolution by natural selection works through mutations and adaptions
Evolution by Natural Selection Works through Mutations and Adaptions

  • Populations not individuals evolve by becoming genetically different

  • First Step is the development of genetic variability: variety in the genetic makeup of individuals in a population

  • Mutation: random changes in DNA molecules of a gene that can be inherited by offspring which then result in

    • heritable trait: which can be passed from one generation to another

  • Adaptive trait:any heritable trait the improves the ability of an individual organism to survive and to reproduce at a higher rate

  • Differential Reproduction: enables individuals with the trait to produce more surviving offspring than other members of the population produce

  • Scientific concept of natural selection explains how popuations adapt to changes in environmental conditions


Process of biological evolution by natural selection
Process of biological evolution by natural selection Adaptions

  • Genes mutate

  • Individuals are selected

  • Populations evolve such that they are better adapted to survive and reproduce under existing environmental conditions


Case study how did humans become such a powerful species
Case Study: How did humans become such a powerful species Adaptions

  • Humans have survived and thrived because of certain traits such as opposable thumbs, ability to walk upright and a complex brain.


Adaption through natural selection has limits
Adaption through natural selection has limits Adaptions

  • There are two limitations on adaptation through natural selection

    • 1st : Change in environmental conditions can lead to such an adaption only for genetic traits already present in a populations gene pool or for traits resulting from mutations which occur randomly

    • 2nd: Even if a beneficial heritable trait is present in a population the populations ability to adapt may be limited by its reproductive capacity


Three common myths about evolution through natural selection
Three Common Myths about Evolution through Natural Selection Adaptions

  • “Survival of the fittest” means “survival of the strongest”

    • Fitness is a measure of reproductive success not strength

  • Organisms develop traits because they need them

  • Species become more perfectly adapted



Geological processes affected natural selection
Geological Processes Affected Natural Selection evolution

  • Tectonic Plates changed earths surface

  • This fact has two important effects on the evolution and distribution of life the earth

    • 1st: locations (latitudes) of continents and oceanic basins have greatly influenced the earths climate and thus helped to determine where plants and animals can live

    • 2nd: the movement of continents has allowed species to move, adapt to new environments and form new species through natural selection.


Tectonic plates
Tectonic Plates evolution

  • Continents join= population disperse/adapt to new areas

  • Continents separate= populations must evolve under isolated conditions or become extinct.

  • Sudden movements can cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can affect biological evolution.


Climate change and catastrophes affect natural selection
Climate Change and Catastrophes Affect Natural Selection evolution

  • Long term climate changes have a major effect on biological evolution by determining where different types of plants and animals can survive and thrive and by changing the locations of different types of ecosystems

  • There has been estimated 3 collisions during the 3.5 million years that earth has had life existence



How do new species evolve
How do new species evolve biodiversity

  • Speciation: one species splits into two or more different species

  • Most common way in which speciation occurs in two stages

    • 1st:Geographic isolation

    • 2nd: Reproductive isolation

  • Geographic Isolation: different groups or the same population of species become physically isolated from one another for a long period of time

  • Reproductive Isolation: mutation and change by natural selection operate independently in the gene pools or geographically isolated population


The 2 nd stage
The 2 biodiversity nd stage

  • If the process continues long enough members of geographically and reproductively isolated populations of sexually reproducing species may become so different in genetic makeup that they cannot produce liver fertile offspring

  • Eventually one species has become two and speciation has occurred


Extinction is forever
Extinction is forever biodiversity

  • Extinction: process in which an entire species cease (biological extinction) or a population of a species becomes extinct over a large region but not globally (local extinction)

  • Endemic species: and are specially vulnerable to extinction.

    • Exists on islands/tropical rainforest

  • All species eventually become extinct

  • 25-95% of all species are wiped out worldwide in a few million years or less.



Species diversity includes the variety and abundance of species in a particular place
Species diversity includes the Variety and Abundance of species in a Particular Place

  • Species diversity: or the number and variety of species it contains

  • Important component: of species diversity is species richness: the number of different species present.

  • Species evenness is another component: the comparative numbers of individuals in each species are the higher is the species evenness in that community

    • Tropical forest have high species evenness


Species rich ecosystems tend to be productive and sustainable
Species-Rich Ecosystems Tend to Be Productive and Sustainable

  • The more diverse and ecosystem is the more productive it will be.

  • Greater species richness and productivity will make an ecosystem more stable or sustainable.


Species richness and productivity
Species Richness and Productivity Sustainable

  • It can provide insurance against catastrophes.

  • Species-rich communities were also less affected by drought and more resistant to invasions by insect species.

  • It is debatable among scientists about how much species richness is needed to help sustain various ecosystems.



Each species plays a role in its ecosystem
Each Species Plays a Role in its Ecosystem Sustainable

  • Each species has a specific role to play in the ecosystems where it is found

  • Ecological Niche: species way to live in a community and includes everything that affects and sunlight it needs, how much water it feeds on, what it feeds on and the temperatures it can tolerate.

  • Generalist: broad niches

  • Specialists: occupy niches

  • Environmental conditions are fair: specialists have fewer competitions

  • Rapidly changing environmental conditions: generalists are better


Case study cockroaches natures ultimate survivor
Case Study: Cockroaches: Natures Ultimate Survivor Sustainable

  • Cockroaches have out lived dinosaurs, will eat just about anything and can go a month without eating.


Species can play five major roles within the ecosystems
Species can play five major roles within the ecosystems Sustainable

  • Niches can be classified as

    • Native

    • Nonnative

    • Indicator

    • Keystone

    • Foundation species

  • Native: species that normally live there

  • Nonnative: does not live there


Case study why are amphibians vanishing
Case Study: Why are amphibians vanishing Sustainable

  • Starting in the 1980s hundreds of the worlds 6,000 amphibian species have been vanishing.


Keystone species play critical roles in their ecosystem
Keystone species play critical Roles in their ecosystem Sustainable

  • Keystone Species: species whose roles have a large effect on the types and abundance of other species in an ecosystem.

  • Play several critical roles to help sustain an ecosystem such as

    • Pollination

    • Top predator species


Case study the america alligator a keystone species that almost went extinct
Case Study: The America Alligator-A keystone species that Almost Went Extinct

  • One of the most important keystone species, has outlived dinosaurs and has no natural predators except humans which in the late 1930s started to put there life at risk.


Foundation species help to form the bases of ecosystems
Foundation Species Help to Form the Bases of Ecosystems Almost Went Extinct

  • Foundation Species: species play a major role in shaping their communities by creating and enhancing their habitats so they benefit other species


Three big ideas
Three big ideas Almost Went Extinct

  • Populations evolve when genes mutate and give some individuals genetic traits that enhance their abilities to survive and to produce offspring with these traits (natural selection).

  • Human activities are decreasing the earth’s vital biodiversity by causing the extinction of species and by disrupting habitats needed for the development of new species.

  • Each species plays a specific ecological role (ecological niche) in the ecosystem where it is found


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