Enzymes
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Enzymes. Chemical Reactions. Energy breaks chemical bonds Energy released (heat & light) Energy stored in new bonds Activation Energy: amount of energy needed to start a reaction. Exothermic Reactions. Exo = exit; thermic = heat Defined: Release more energy than it absorbs Light & heat

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Enzymes

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Enzymes

Enzymes


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Energy breaks chemical bonds

    • Energy released (heat & light)

    • Energy stored in new bonds

  • Activation Energy: amount of energy needed to start a reaction


Exothermic reactions

Exothermic Reactions

  • Exo = exit; thermic = heat

  • Defined: Release more energy than it absorbs

    • Light & heat

  • Ex: Cellular Respiration

    • Process that creates energy for cells

    • Chemical energy released for cells…

    • Heat energy released for warmth


Endothermic reactions

Endothermic Reactions

  • Endo = within; thermic heat

  • Defined: Absorb more energy than it releases

  • Ex: Photosynthesis

    • Sugar has more energy in the bonds than CO2 + H2O


Enzymes

Enzymes

  • Activation energy usually comes from an increase in temp

    • Slow process

  • Catalyst: substance that decreases the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction

    • Speeds up reaction

  • Enzymes reduce energy needed (activation energy) to start a chemical reaction


Controlled settings

Controlled Settings

  • Human body ~98.6°F

    • Can’t raise body temp to start reactions.

  • Internal reactions would be too slow to sustain life without a catalyst

  • Ex: Saliva

    • Breaks down starch 1,000,000x faster with amylase


Enzyme structure

Enzyme Structure

  • Enzyme shape allows specific reactants to bind together

    • Reactants = substrate

    • Ex: Amylase & starch: Starch is the substrate because it binds to amylase

  • Substrates binds to activation sites on the enzyme (key fitting into a lock)

  • Once binded to enzyme, substrates bonds weakened

  • Substrates bonds break

  • Substrates re-bond to each other


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