Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato
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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato. Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato. Abstract : Potato crop prefers well-pulverized seed bed for its better germination, growth and yield.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato


Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato1

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Abstract:

Potato crop prefers well-pulverized seed bed for its better germination, growth and yield.

Soil is brought to fine tilth through repeated tillage operations prior to potato planting.

Tillage operations carried in potato cultivation can be grouped in to two,

1. Primary tillage and 2. Secondary tillage.

Country plough, mould board plough, disc plough, Bose plough, cultivator are some of the commonly used primary tillage implements in potato cultivation.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato2

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Cultivator, harrows, planks are regularly used for secondary tillage in potato fields.

However, country plough, cultivators and harrows are used as duel purpose i.e. for both primary and secondary tillage operations in potato fields in developing countries.

Land modifications for making preferred method of potato planting, i.e. ridges and furrows in addition to other methods such as planting flat beds, shallow furrow planting, planting tubers and ridging etc. are made either manually or mechanically.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato3

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

  • Learning objectives:

  • To learn the primary and secondary tillage operations carried out in potato cultivation in potato.

  • To know the different land modification needed for planting potato.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato4

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Introduction:

Potato ranks fourth position in the world after wheat, rice and maize as non-cereal food crop. It is used in many ways like vegetable, potato wafers/chips, powder, finger chips etc.

Potato tubers constitute a highly nutritious food. It provides carbohydrates, vitamin C, minerals, high quality protein and dietary fibre.

The potato needs well pulverized seed bed for tuber production.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato5

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

The soil is brought to a fine tilth by giving 8-10 ploughings followed by planking (after each ploughing).

The process of planking levels the land, breaks the clods, collects the weeds and compresses the soil slightly. The preparation of land is usually begin at 6-8 weeks before the sowing of potato during which 25 tonnes/ha of compost or FYM are applied to the soil.

The soil should be made free from stubbles, weeds and clods. Now-a-days, tractors and power tillers are employed for land preparation the latter makes the soil more pulverize, free from weeds and clods by minimum number of tillage than that of country plough

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato6

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Primary tillage

The tillage operation that is done after the harvest of crop to bring the land under cultivation is known as primary tillage or ploughing.

Ploughing is the opening of the compact soil with the help of different ploughs.

Primary tillage is done mainly to open the hard soil and to separate the top soil from lower layers and to uprooting of weeds also.

Potato is a crop whose growing season is short and whose planting time is restricted. Speedy agricultural operations are a basic need to ensure success.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato7

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

The primary objective of tillage in potato is to prepare the land for placement of tubers. The secondary objective of tillage is that is to control the weeds in potato at the early stages of plant emergences.

Fine soil tilth is maintained for potato cultivation.

To achieve this, a very high number of tillage operations to the extent of 6-12 times is practiced which not only cause delay in planting at optimum time but also, disturb the aggregation of soil particles as well as moisture content in the soil.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato8

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Experimental results however, suggest that the number of tillage operations can be appreciably reduced.

There are several implements used for primary tillage are as follows.

Country plough

It is an indigenous plough and is one of the most common implements used by potato farmers of developing countries. It is drawn with a pair of bullocks. It is used both for tilling the land and harvesting of potato.

The plough can work up about 0.14 ha/day in the initial ploughing and subsequently the efficiency increases to about 0.20 ha/day.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato9

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Mould board plough

It is most suitable for primary tillage of almost all types of soil in potato cultivation.

It cuts square furrow and the soil is inverted completely depending on the curvature given to the mould board plough and thus help in burying the weeds.

The mould board plough ploughs to a depth of 15 cm having width from 15 to 35 cm. It covers 0.20-0.26 ha/day.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato10

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Bose plough

It is a modified form of mould board plough. It is made of wood except the share which is made of steel or iron.

The structure and function of this plough is almost similar to mould board plough.

This plough is gaining popularity among the potato farmers. Most of the farmers of developing countries, cultivating potato are using this plough.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato11

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Disc plough

It is also used for ploughing which have little resemblance to common mould board plough. It is clod breaking implements which is invariably used for initial ploughing in hard soil under potato cultivation. It can cover about two hectares a day.

Spade

Spade is most common implements used for various agricultural operations like bunding, channeling, ridging and harvesting of potato. It is used for breaking and preparing of the soil when the land size is small.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato12

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Secondary tillage

The tillage operations that are performed on the soil after primary tillage to bring a good soil tilth are known as secondary tillage.

Secondary tillage consists of lighter or finer operation which is done to clean the soil, break the clods and incorporate the manures and fertilizers. Since the potato prefers fine seedbed, the secondary tillage operations are inevitable.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato13

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

There are some implements used for secondary tillage are as follows Cultivator

It is one of the most useful implements used for secondary tillage of potato field.

It may also be used for primary tillage cultivation and weeding purposes soon after the emergence of the plant.

It can cover 1.0 to 1.5 hectares of land in a working day of 8 hours.

Harrow

It is commonly used for secondary tillage and is drawn by a tractor in potato fields. Harrows are used for making the soil loose and friable.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato14

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

It makes the soil pulverized very well and hurried the weeds completely. It can cover 1.0 hectares of the land in a working day of 8 hours in tractor attachment.

Harrows can also be attached with power tillers, but, the area coverage will be lesser (0.5 ha/day).

Ladder or plank

It is an age old implement used for secondary tillage purposes in potato. Planking is done to crush the hard clods level the soil surface and to compact the soil lightly. It is pulled by a pair of bullock or tractor.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato15

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Land modification in potato

After tillage operations, potato is planted by different methods in various parts of the world. However, ridge and furrow method is the most popular method of potato planting.

The planting of potato can be grouped into two types, viz., manual and mechanical planting. According to planting methods, resource availability of farmers and soil types, the land modifications are also varies.

Hence, planting methods along with land modifications are given hereunder

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato16

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Manual planting

Shallow furrows drawn with curved /narrow-blade spade followed by planting and covered the seed tubers on the North side of the ridge.

Another method is after marking with the rope or marker on the soil surface, tubers are placed on these lines and then ridges are made either with bullock drawn implements or with narrow-blade spade manually.

A double row method of planting came into practice in Jalandhar (India) in the 1950s, wherein fertilizers were applied on soil surface as a continuous band in rows 70-80 cm apart, tubers were placed on soil surface on both sides of the band about 10-15 cm apart, followed by ridging.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato17

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

In fine textured soils, after pre-planting irrigation and when soil is in working condition, the seed tubers are inserted in about 5 cm below the bottom of the furrows with sturdy thin edged tool in moist soil.

In some parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (India), while drawing the furrows with a country plough, cut seed or small tubers are placed in the furrows by Pora or behind the plough in the furrows manually, leaving the alternate furrow vacant. Planking is done after planting.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato18

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

In another method, after application of fertilizers, first 10-12 cm high ridges are formed with hand scraper or narrow blade spade or with country plough and then tubers are dibbled at a depth of 5-7 cm from the top in the centre of the ridge with Khurpa (a narrow-blade tool).

In heavy textured soils, furrows are opened first at a distance of 45-50 cm and light irrigation is given.

At optimum soil moisture, soil is made fine and pulverized by ploughing and then after placing the tubers, ridges are made.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato19

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Mechanical planting

Tractor drawn 2 or 4 row marker-cum-fertilizer drill is used for making furrows and placing of fertilizers in the furrows followed by planting with 2 or 4 row potato planter-cum-ridger.

A tractor drawn 2 or 4 row potato planter in which all the operations, viz., opening of furrows, application of fertilizers, placement of tubers and ridging are combined together and done simultaneously.

It saves a lot of time and reduces soil compaction by tractor wheels compared with the method where these operations are done separately in two trips.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato20

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

After opening shallow furrows, tubers are placed in furrows followed by ridging with tractor drawn ridger.

In another method, ridges are made with the tractor drawn ridger after application of fertilizers and tubers are dibbled 5-7 cm deep on the ridges manually.

Size of the ridge

Ridges and furrows

Size of the ridge depends upon the soil texture, availability of water and the crop is planted for ware or seed purposes. Generally, 45-60 cm wide ridges are preferred for potato cultivation.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato21

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Thin and low ridges are favoured for quick emergence; require low volume of water for getting moistened and save time as well as cost of labour.

For early potato crop, quick and early emergence and fast grow and development is important owing to short duration of the crop.

Hence, it is desirable that only small volume of soil exists over the seed tubers at planting and full ridge are made at earthing up.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato22

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

In the case of main crop, initial ridging to a height of 5, 10 and 15 cm after placing the seed tubers on soil surface followed by earthing up after emergence to a uniform height gave similar yields of main crop of potato.

A good ridge having triangular shape is necessary after emergence to with stand irrigation water, to provide space for developing tubers and to check greening of tube from sunlight

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato23

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

The ridge height is reduced gradually with the running water with each irrigation in coarse textured soil, whereas, in fine textured soil, negligible reduction takes place and ridges remain firm and intact.

However, delayed irrigation at bulking favours development of cracks in soils giving passage to sun rays which cause greening to the tubers.

Summary:

Potato crop needs well pulverized soil for its better performance.

The main objectives of tillage in potato are to prepare the land for placement of tubers and to control the weeds.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato24

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

  • Bose ploughis a common plough in developing countries and Disc plough is used for initial ploughing in hard soil under potato cultivation.

  • Secondary tillage consists of lighter or finer operation which is done through harrows, cultivator and planking.

  • Ridge and furrow method is the most popul

  • Planting in shallow furrows, marking and tubers are placed on these lines, planting after pre-planting irrigation, inserting seed tubers 5 cm below the bottom of the furrows, Pora or behind the plough, are some of the manual methods followed in potato cultivation.

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Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for potato25

Primary and secondary tillage and land modification for Potato

Tractor drawn 2 or 4 row marker-cum-fertilizer drill, tractor drawn 2 or 4 row potato planter, ridging with tractor drawn ridger are some of the popular mechanical planting methods of potato.

Generally, 45-60 cm wide ridges are preferred for potato cultivation.

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Assessment

Assessment

  • Potato crop needs well pulverized soil (True / False)

  • Main objectives of tillage in potato is to make inter-cultural operations (True / False)

  • Country plough is one of the most common implements used by potato farmers of developing countries (True / False)

  • Harrowis commonly used for primary tillage and is drawn by a tractor in potato fields (True / False)

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Assessment1

Assessment

5.Cultivators can be used for primary tillage cultivation and weeding purposes soon after the emergence of the plant (True / False)

6.Ridge and furrow method is the most popular method of potato planting (True / False)

7.Less than 30 cm wide ridges are preferred for potato cultivation (True / False)

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References

References

  • HariOm and R.S. Hooda. 1985. Effect of methods of planting and fertilizer levels on yield and quality of the potato. Journal of Indian Potato Association. 12 (1-2): 105-109.

  • http://www.niir.org/books/book/potato-potato-products-cultivation-seed-production-manuring-harvesting-organic-farming-storage-processing-npcs-board-consultants-engineers/isbn-9788190439893/zb,,131,a,0,0,a/index.html

  • Kushwah, V.S. and P.M. Govindakrishnan, 1993. Cultural practices for potato cultivation. In: Advances in Horticulture, Vol. 7-Potato. Eds. Chandha, K.L. and J.S. Grewal, Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi.

  • Kushwah, V.S. and S.S. Lal. 1988. Cultural practices for seed potato production. Seeds and Farms. 14 (9): 11-15.

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