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Gandhi and India. Gandhi’s Last Possessions. Photograph from the M.K. Gandhi Institute for Nonviolence. Mahatma Gandi in 1940. Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 18, 2010. Predominately Muslim Area. Predominately Muslim Area. Predominately Hindu Area.

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Gandhi and india

Gandhi and India

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

Gandhi’s Last Possessions

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Photograph from the M.K. Gandhi Institute for Nonviolence


Gandhi and india

Mahatma Gandi in 1940

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 18, 2010


Gandhi and india

Predominately Muslim Area

Predominately Muslim Area

Predominately Hindu Area

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Map “Prevailing Religions, British Indian Empire 1909” fromImperial Gazetteer Atlas of India, Oxford University Press, 1909. From Wikipedia Commons, uploaded by Fowler&fowler, March 19, 2007.


Gandhi and india

Gandhi and his wife, Kasturba, 1902

Gandhi was born in 1869.

At the age of 13 he married Kasturbha. She was 15. Like most marriages in India, it was an arranged marriage.They had four sons.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 18, 2010


Gandhi and india

While Gandhi was growing up, India was controlled by the British.

However, two organizations were founded when he was still a young man that, over time, fought against British rule. These were the:

  • Indian National Congress

    and

  • The Muslim League

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, believed:

  • British rule should end.

  • The caste system should be abolished.

  • Poverty should end.

  • People should work together to avoid religious differences.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

The Muslim League, founded in 1906, believed:

  • Muslim rights and liberties should be protected.

  • Understanding with other religions should be promoted.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • 1888 – Gandhi went to London to train as a lawyer and returned home to India in 1891.

  • His mother had died while he was away, but his family hadn’t told him until he returned.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

In 1893 Gandhi went to South Africa. He faced discrimination there against Indians.

For example, he was not allowed to ride on the same part of a train as white people. He organized protests against the South African government.

Gandhi in South Africa, 1895

- Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 5, 2010

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • In South Africa Gandhi developed his ideas about nonviolent resistance.

  • He believed in civil disobedience – meaning he wouldn’t obey laws he thought were wrong, but he was willing to undergo government punishment.

  • He believed in shaming the government into changing their policies by refusing to respond to violence with violence.

  • He said, “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.” 

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • 1914 – World War I began and Gandhi returned to India.

  • The British promised Indians that they would have more self-rule if they helped in the British war effort.

  • 1.3 million Indians served in the army or helping the army.

  • After the war, the British allowed Indians more control over agencies like health and education but not over agencies like finance, taxation, the army or the police.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • After the World War I not only did the British refuse to yield power, they extended, indefinitely, the Rowlatt Act. This meant anyone who spoke against British rule could be sent to jail without a trial. It meant demonstrations were not allowed against the British government.

  • In protest, Indians demonstrated throughout the country. In Amritsar thousands gathered.

  • A British general, O’Dwyer, brought machine guns and rifles to the demonstration and blocked all the exits. Without warning, he ordered troops to fire, killing over 1,000 unarmed people.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

There was outrage over this massacre. In England, the Hunter Commission looked into the event. O’Dwyer testified to the commission. When asked if he could have given a warning, he said:

“I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed, and I would have made, what I consider, a fool of myself.”

— Dyer’s response to the Hunter Commission Inquiry

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

1920 Gandhi and the Indian National Congress began a campaign of “non-cooperation” with the British. This included:

  • Not buying products from the British

  • Making their own clothes

  • Resigning from government jobs

  • Not accepting any honors from the British

  • Gandhi was sent to jail for this activity.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • 1930 – Gandhi, continuing to defy the British, urged people to make their own salt. The British had forbidden anyone to make their own – they said all the salt must be bought from them.

  • Gandhi led a march of people to the sea where he made his own salt.

  • 60,000 people were jailed for making salt.

Gandhi on the Salt March, 1930

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 18, 2010


Gandhi and india

Gandhi was invited to England to negotiate with their government on handing over power to Indians, but the negotiations were disappointing. While he was there, Winston Churchill, a British leader, said about Gandhi:

“It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr. Gandhi, a seditious middle temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir (a poor religious person who begs for alms) of a type well known in the east, striding half-naked up the steps of the viceregal palace, while he is still organizing and conducting a defiant campaign of civil disobedience, to parley (negotiate) on equal terms with the representative of the king-emperor.”

—Winston Churchill addressing the Council of the West Essex Unionist Association (23 February 1931); as quoted in "Mr. Churchill on India" in The Times (24 February 1931)

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

Winston Churchill didn’t like Gandhi, and Gandhi wasn’t too impressed with Churchill or the British government. When he was asked by the press what he thought of Western civilization, Gandhi said:

“I think it would be a good idea.”

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

In 1932 Gandhi was concerned about the lowest caste in India – then called the untouchables (now called Dalits). Among other things, untouchables:

  • Could not touch anything that was going to be used by someone of a higher caste

  • Could not enter a Hindu temple

  • Could not use the well water that other people used

  • Were forced to live in the worst parts of city slums

  • In villages were forced to live on the outskirt of town

  • Had to drink polluted water

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • Gandhi, who was in jail, began fasting to protest treatment of untouchables.

  • Specifically, the British government had said that untouchables would have their own elections – they wouldn’t be able to participate with others.

  • Gandhi said he would fast until this was changed.

  • He ended his fast when the British agreed to his demands.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • 1939 – World War II began.

  • The British wanted Indians to help them in the war against Hitler.

  • However, Gandhi and the Indian National Congress were not willing to do this. They drafted a resolution saying they wanted no part of the British effort.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

Gandhi and the Indian National Congress started the “Quit India” campaign against the British. 100,000 people were arrested.

“Quit India” march, 1942

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Quit India, March 18, 2010


Gandhi and india

Nehru and Gandhi, 1942

1947 – The war was over and the British finally agreed to give India its independence. Within India there was disagreement about whether India should be one country or two – India and another country for Muslims.

Nehru (on the left) and Gandhi from the Indian National Congress wanted one country.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 5, 2010


Gandhi and india

Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League, wanted a separate country for Muslims – to be called Pakistan.

Mohammed Ali Jinnah, 1946

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Jinnah, March 18, 2010


Gandhi and india

Gandhi tried to work out a compromise between Jinnah (in picture) and the Indian National Congress, but he was unsuccessful. The British agreed to partition the country – divide it into two parts.

Jinnah and Gandhi, 1942

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 18, 2010


India pre partition

India Pre-Partition

This is India pre- and post-partition. Notice what happens to the shaded areas in the next slide.

Wikipedia, March 18, 2010

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


India post partition

India Post-Partition

Wikipedia, March 18, 2010

The shaded areas become Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

  • After India was divided, millions of people moved. Muslims who were in India moved to Pakistan, and Hindus who were in Pakistan moved to India.

  • As Gandhi feared, there was tremendous violence.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

“Convoy of Muslims streaming past the dead of a previous caravan and the whitened bones of their buffaloes”

– photo by Margaret Bourke-White, 1947

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

http://8ate.blogspot.com/2008/12/pictures-of-indian-partition.html


Gandhi and india

  • Gandhi, in an attempt to stop the rioting and violence, went on a fast again.

  • He is credited with stopping some of the violence in Calcutta – one of the largest Indian cities.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


Gandhi and india

Mourners at Gandhi’s Funeral

Gandhi’s Funeral Pyre

On January 30, 1948 Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu nationalist who thought that Gandhi was being too supportive of the Muslims. His funeral took place on February 1.

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010

Wikipedia entry on Gandhi, March 18, 2010


Gandhi and india

Indians were distraught.

In an address to the nation Nehru, then Prime Minister, said:

“Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country.”

—Nehru’s address about Gandhi

OUSD 10th Grade History Assessment - Spring, 2010


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