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Pregnancy. Intro to Pregnancy. Conception triggers thousands of complex changes Conception occurs 14 days prior to a woman’s next period Pregnancy averages 38 weeks (40 if you count from last menstrual period). Nutrition Basics. Essential Nutrients Nutrients that we must have to survive

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intro to pregnancy
Intro to Pregnancy
  • Conception triggers thousands of complex changes
  • Conception occurs 14 days prior to a woman’s next period
  • Pregnancy averages 38 weeks (40 if you count from last menstrual period)
nutrition basics
Nutrition Basics
  • Essential Nutrients
    • Nutrients that we must have to survive
      • Carbohydrates
      • Amino Acids from Protein
      • Lipids
      • Vitamins
      • Minerals
      • Water
eat for you
Eat for YOU
  • Your diet should be based on the following
    • Age
    • Body Size
    • Gender
    • Genetic Traits
    • Growth
    • Illness
    • Lifestyle habits
    • Pregnancy/Lactation
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates
  • Carbs are used as the main energy source
  • Should be 45-65% of your diet
  • Simple sugars, Complex carbohydrates, and fiber
    • Simple Sugars
      • Mono- and Disaccharides
      • Easy to break down
      • Glucose, Sucrose
      • Sugar, Fruit
    • Complex Carbohydrates
      • More complex chemical structures
      • Starches and Fiber
      • Diet high in complex carbs, especially fiber helps to lower risks of heart disease
carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates
  • Simple Sugars
    • Fruit
    • Sugar
  • Complex Carbohydrates
    • Vegetables
    • Bread
    • Pasta
    • Rice
    • CousCous
    • Tortillas
amino acids protein
Amino Acids-Protein
  • Our bodies use protein to build and repair body tissues
  • 9 “Essential” Amino Acids can not be synthesized and must come from our diets
  • Classified as Complete if they have all 9, Incomplete if they do not
protein
Protein
  • Complete
    • Soy
    • Eggs
    • Meat
    • Poultry
    • Fish
    • Milk
  • Incomplete
    • Beans
    • Nuts
    • Seeds
    • Legumes
    • Grains
lipids
Lipids
  • Fats are solid at room temperature (Saturated) and oils are liquid at room temperature (Unsaturated)
  • They are composed of chains of Fatty Acids
  • Concentrated form of energy, yielding 9 Cal/gram
  • You MUST have Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in your diet for your nervous system
    • Linoleic-vegetable oils, meat
    • Alph-Linolenic Acid-Dark green vegetables, vegetable oils, flax seed
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Chemical substances in food that perform specific functions in the body
  • 13 have been identified
  • They do not provide energy
  • Water Soluble
    • B-Complex
      • Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic Acid, B12, B6, Pantothenic acid
    • C
  • Fat-Soluble
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
minerals
Minerals
  • Humans require 15 minerals
  • Combine with other minerals to form teeth, bones, cartilage
  • Allow muscles to contract and control the amount of water in the tissues
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Fluoride
  • Iodine
  • Selenium
  • Copper
  • Manganese
  • Chromium
  • Molybdenum
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Chloride
water
Water
  • You are 60-70% water
  • You need enough to replace daily losses through perspiration, urination, and exhalation
  • Males15-16 cups
  • Females 11 cups
  • Foods
  • Water (liquids)
increased appetite and nutrient stores
Increased Appetite and Nutrient Stores
  • Carbohydrates provide the fetal fuel (Glucose)
    • Bread, potatoes, corn, cereal, rice, pasta
  • Protein is needed in increased amounts during pregnancy to allow for the synthesis of new maternal and fetal tissues
    • Meat, beans, nuts, seeds
  • Fetus is not a Parasite
  • Energy (Calorie) requirements increase because of increases in maternal body mass and fetal growth
  • 2nd trimester +340 Cal
  • 3rd Trimester +460 Cal
nutrient needs
Nutrient Needs
  • MyPlate
  • www.choosemyplate.gov
  • Pay Special Attention to:
  • Iron
    • Meat, Tofu, Cereals
  • Calcium
    • Milk, Soymilk, Nuts, Green vegetables,
  • Vitamin D
    • Milk, Soymilk, Sun
  • Vitamin B12
    • Cereal, Soymilk
  • Folic Acid
    • Bread, Cereals
meal planning requirements
Meal Planning Requirements
  • Planning Meals requires thought and effort
  • Plan for Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner and 2 snacks/day
  • Breakfast:
    • Protein
    • Carbohydrate
    • Fruit
  • Lunch:
    • Protein
    • Carbohydrate
    • Fruit
    • Vegetable
    • Dairy
  • Dinner:
    • Carbohydrate
    • Vegetable
    • Dairy
  • Snacks:
    • Pick up the food group lacking
  • Think about:
    • Color
    • Texture
    • Health
    • Smell
meal planning
Meal Planning
  • You plan a meal for a pregnant woman
  • Choose a meat-eater, vegetarian or vegan
  • 5’11”
  • 190 lbs
  • Due Date: 05/25/2011
  • 30-60 minutes of activity
  • Check it on www.choosemyplate.gov
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • What are the physiological changes that pregnant women experience?
  • Why does the placenta develop before the fetus?
  • What are some of the important nutrients during pregnancy?
physiology
Physiology
  • Changes during pregnancy happens in a specific sequence
  • Volume of Blood (Plasma)
  • Hormonal Changes
  • Increased Appetite
  • Building up Nutrient Stores
  • Placental Growth
body water changes
Body Water Changes
  • A woman’s body gains about 2 ½ gallons of fluid during pregnancy
    • Volume of Plasma
      • Is considered the reason that women feel so tired at the beginning of pregnancy
      • To support fetal growth
    • Amniotic Fluid
      • The fluid that surrounds and protects the fetus
hormonal changes
Hormonal Changes
  • Changes during pregnancy are regulated by the hormones Progesterone and Estrogen
  • They are created by the Placenta
  • They are responsible for
    • mood swings
    • nausea, vomiting
    • nesting, listlessness
    • lethargy
    • Tender, swollen breasts
    • Cravings or distaste for certain foods
placenta growth
Placenta Growth
  • Placenta comes from the Latin word for “cake”
  • Functions:
    • Hormone and Enzyme Production
    • Nutrient and Gas Exchange
    • Removal of Waste
  • Structure
    • Double layer of cells separates
    • Acts as a barrier not to all harmful substances
      • Blocks: Bacteria and Protein
      • Doesn’t Block: Alcohol, Nicotine, Drugs, Viruses, Parasites
    • Governs the rate of passage back and forth
nutrition for growth and development
Nutrition for Growth and Development
  • Nutrition is especially important during the time before a woman expects to become pregnant.
  • It is not possible to “drop back” and redo growth and development that failed during previous stages
  • A fetus’s proper growth and development depends on proper nutrition
month 1
Month 1
  • Days 1-8 the cells (called a zygote at this point) are dividing and working to form a 250 celled blastocyst
  • The cell differentiation begins
  • The embryo implants in the uterine wall to feed on glucose
  • Placenta is working
  • ¼ inch long with a “head,” trunk, arms, and heart is beating. Spinal cord and brain present
month 2
Month 2
  • Has organs, mouth, hands and arms
  • Has its own blood and blood is circulating
  • Umbilical cord develops
  • ½ inch long
  • About 25% of all blastocysts and embryos are lost before the end of this month (sometimes you don’t even know you were pregnant)
month 3
Month 3
  • Embryo is now called a fetus
  • Sperm or eggs are beginning to form
  • Movement Begins
  • Breathes in amniotic fluid
month 4
Month 4
  • Weighs about 6 oz
  • Skin is transparent
  • Can suck thumb
  • Placenta is about 3 inches in diameter
  • Can feel baby move
month 5
Month 5
  • Weighs about a pound
  • Looks more human than alien
  • Skeleton begins to calcify
  • Has patterns of wake and sleep
  • Hair is growing
month 6
Month 6
  • 14 inches long
  • Teeth buds form
  • Baby can react to external sounds and hear your voice
  • Baby is considered viable (can live if born now)
  • Organs are formed but are not fully functional
month 7
Month 7
  • Gains ½ to 1 ounce per day
  • Fat and muscle begins to redistribute and build up
  • Only lungs are left to develop fully
  • Eyes are fully formed
month 8
Month 8
  • Gaining 1 oz/day
  • All 5 senses working
  • Baby will not move as much because there is not much room left
  • Antibodies are being transferred to baby
month 9
Month 9
  • Storing vitamins and minerals
  • Drops into the birth canal
  • Lungs are fully developed
  • Placenta weighs about 1 ½ lbs at birth
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