Pregnancy
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Pregnancy. Intro to Pregnancy. Conception triggers thousands of complex changes Conception occurs 14 days prior to a woman’s next period Pregnancy averages 38 weeks (40 if you count from last menstrual period). Nutrition Basics. Essential Nutrients Nutrients that we must have to survive

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Pregnancy

Pregnancy


Intro to pregnancy

Intro to Pregnancy

  • Conception triggers thousands of complex changes

  • Conception occurs 14 days prior to a woman’s next period

  • Pregnancy averages 38 weeks (40 if you count from last menstrual period)


Nutrition basics

Nutrition Basics

  • Essential Nutrients

    • Nutrients that we must have to survive

      • Carbohydrates

      • Amino Acids from Protein

      • Lipids

      • Vitamins

      • Minerals

      • Water


Eat for you

Eat for YOU

  • Your diet should be based on the following

    • Age

    • Body Size

    • Gender

    • Genetic Traits

    • Growth

    • Illness

    • Lifestyle habits

    • Pregnancy/Lactation


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

  • Carbs are used as the main energy source

  • Should be 45-65% of your diet

  • Simple sugars, Complex carbohydrates, and fiber

    • Simple Sugars

      • Mono- and Disaccharides

      • Easy to break down

      • Glucose, Sucrose

      • Sugar, Fruit

    • Complex Carbohydrates

      • More complex chemical structures

      • Starches and Fiber

      • Diet high in complex carbs, especially fiber helps to lower risks of heart disease


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

  • Simple Sugars

    • Fruit

    • Sugar

  • Complex Carbohydrates

    • Vegetables

    • Bread

    • Pasta

    • Rice

    • CousCous

    • Tortillas


Amino acids protein

Amino Acids-Protein

  • Our bodies use protein to build and repair body tissues

  • 9 “Essential” Amino Acids can not be synthesized and must come from our diets

  • Classified as Complete if they have all 9, Incomplete if they do not


Protein

Protein

  • Complete

    • Soy

    • Eggs

    • Meat

    • Poultry

    • Fish

    • Milk

  • Incomplete

    • Beans

    • Nuts

    • Seeds

    • Legumes

    • Grains


Lipids

Lipids

  • Fats are solid at room temperature (Saturated) and oils are liquid at room temperature (Unsaturated)

  • They are composed of chains of Fatty Acids

  • Concentrated form of energy, yielding 9 Cal/gram

  • You MUST have Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in your diet for your nervous system

    • Linoleic-vegetable oils, meat

    • Alph-Linolenic Acid-Dark green vegetables, vegetable oils, flax seed


Vitamins

Vitamins

  • Chemical substances in food that perform specific functions in the body

  • 13 have been identified

  • They do not provide energy

  • Water Soluble

    • B-Complex

      • Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic Acid, B12, B6, Pantothenic acid

    • C

  • Fat-Soluble

    • A

    • D

    • E

    • K


Minerals

Minerals

  • Humans require 15 minerals

  • Combine with other minerals to form teeth, bones, cartilage

  • Allow muscles to contract and control the amount of water in the tissues

  • Calcium

  • Phosphorus

  • Magnesium

  • Iron

  • Zinc

  • Fluoride

  • Iodine

  • Selenium

  • Copper

  • Manganese

  • Chromium

  • Molybdenum

  • Sodium

  • Potassium

  • Chloride


Water

Water

  • You are 60-70% water

  • You need enough to replace daily losses through perspiration, urination, and exhalation

  • Males15-16 cups

  • Females 11 cups

  • Foods

  • Water (liquids)


Increased appetite and nutrient stores

Increased Appetite and Nutrient Stores

  • Carbohydrates provide the fetal fuel (Glucose)

    • Bread, potatoes, corn, cereal, rice, pasta

  • Protein is needed in increased amounts during pregnancy to allow for the synthesis of new maternal and fetal tissues

    • Meat, beans, nuts, seeds

  • Fetus is not a Parasite

  • Energy (Calorie) requirements increase because of increases in maternal body mass and fetal growth

  • 2nd trimester +340 Cal

  • 3rd Trimester +460 Cal


Nutrient needs

Nutrient Needs

  • MyPlate

  • www.choosemyplate.gov

  • Pay Special Attention to:

  • Iron

    • Meat, Tofu, Cereals

  • Calcium

    • Milk, Soymilk, Nuts, Green vegetables,

  • Vitamin D

    • Milk, Soymilk, Sun

  • Vitamin B12

    • Cereal, Soymilk

  • Folic Acid

    • Bread, Cereals


Meal planning requirements

Meal Planning Requirements

  • Planning Meals requires thought and effort

  • Plan for Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner and 2 snacks/day

  • Breakfast:

    • Protein

    • Carbohydrate

    • Fruit

  • Lunch:

    • Protein

    • Carbohydrate

    • Fruit

    • Vegetable

    • Dairy

  • Dinner:

    • Carbohydrate

    • Vegetable

    • Dairy

  • Snacks:

    • Pick up the food group lacking

  • Think about:

    • Color

    • Texture

    • Health

    • Smell


Meal planning

Meal Planning

  • You plan a meal for a pregnant woman

  • Choose a meat-eater, vegetarian or vegan

  • 5’11”

  • 190 lbs

  • Due Date: 05/25/2011

  • 30-60 minutes of activity

  • Check it on www.choosemyplate.gov


Essential questions

Essential Questions

  • What are the physiological changes that pregnant women experience?

  • Why does the placenta develop before the fetus?

  • What are some of the important nutrients during pregnancy?


Pregnancy term

Pregnancy Term


Physiology

Physiology

  • Changes during pregnancy happens in a specific sequence

  • Volume of Blood (Plasma)

  • Hormonal Changes

  • Increased Appetite

  • Building up Nutrient Stores

  • Placental Growth


Body water changes

Body Water Changes

  • A woman’s body gains about 2 ½ gallons of fluid during pregnancy

    • Volume of Plasma

      • Is considered the reason that women feel so tired at the beginning of pregnancy

      • To support fetal growth

    • Amniotic Fluid

      • The fluid that surrounds and protects the fetus


Hormonal changes

Hormonal Changes

  • Changes during pregnancy are regulated by the hormones Progesterone and Estrogen

  • They are created by the Placenta

  • They are responsible for

    • mood swings

    • nausea, vomiting

    • nesting, listlessness

    • lethargy

    • Tender, swollen breasts

    • Cravings or distaste for certain foods


Placenta growth

Placenta Growth

  • Placenta comes from the Latin word for “cake”

  • Functions:

    • Hormone and Enzyme Production

    • Nutrient and Gas Exchange

    • Removal of Waste

  • Structure

    • Double layer of cells separates

    • Acts as a barrier not to all harmful substances

      • Blocks: Bacteria and Protein

      • Doesn’t Block: Alcohol, Nicotine, Drugs, Viruses, Parasites

    • Governs the rate of passage back and forth


Placenta

Placenta


Fetal growth and development

Fetal Growth and Development


Nutrition for growth and development

Nutrition for Growth and Development

  • Nutrition is especially important during the time before a woman expects to become pregnant.

  • It is not possible to “drop back” and redo growth and development that failed during previous stages

  • A fetus’s proper growth and development depends on proper nutrition


Month 1

Month 1

  • Days 1-8 the cells (called a zygote at this point) are dividing and working to form a 250 celled blastocyst

  • The cell differentiation begins

  • The embryo implants in the uterine wall to feed on glucose

  • Placenta is working

  • ¼ inch long with a “head,” trunk, arms, and heart is beating. Spinal cord and brain present


Month 2

Month 2

  • Has organs, mouth, hands and arms

  • Has its own blood and blood is circulating

  • Umbilical cord develops

  • ½ inch long

  • About 25% of all blastocysts and embryos are lost before the end of this month (sometimes you don’t even know you were pregnant)


Month 3

Month 3

  • Embryo is now called a fetus

  • Sperm or eggs are beginning to form

  • Movement Begins

  • Breathes in amniotic fluid


Month 4

Month 4

  • Weighs about 6 oz

  • Skin is transparent

  • Can suck thumb

  • Placenta is about 3 inches in diameter

  • Can feel baby move


Month 5

Month 5

  • Weighs about a pound

  • Looks more human than alien

  • Skeleton begins to calcify

  • Has patterns of wake and sleep

  • Hair is growing


Month 6

Month 6

  • 14 inches long

  • Teeth buds form

  • Baby can react to external sounds and hear your voice

  • Baby is considered viable (can live if born now)

  • Organs are formed but are not fully functional


Month 7

Month 7

  • Gains ½ to 1 ounce per day

  • Fat and muscle begins to redistribute and build up

  • Only lungs are left to develop fully

  • Eyes are fully formed


Month 8

Month 8

  • Gaining 1 oz/day

  • All 5 senses working

  • Baby will not move as much because there is not much room left

  • Antibodies are being transferred to baby


Month 9

Month 9

  • Storing vitamins and minerals

  • Drops into the birth canal

  • Lungs are fully developed

  • Placenta weighs about 1 ½ lbs at birth


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