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QUARTERLY REVIEW. US HISTORY II - HONORS. By Mrs. Minnicks. World War II (1939-1945). UNDERLYING: Treaty of Versailles Nationalism Worldwide Depression Dictatorships The policy of appeasement American Isolationism. DIRECT: Germany invading Poland on September 1 st , 1939.

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Quarterly review

QUARTERLY REVIEW

US HISTORY II - HONORS

By Mrs. Minnicks


World war ii 1939 1945

World War II (1939-1945)


Causes for world war ii

UNDERLYING:

Treaty of Versailles

Nationalism

Worldwide Depression

Dictatorships

The policy of appeasement

American Isolationism

DIRECT:

Germany invading Poland on September 1st, 1939

Causes for World War II


Hitler and nazi germany

Hitler and Nazi Germany

  • Rise to power result of weakness of previous government (1933- became Chancellor)

  • Charismatic speaker, preached German nationalism, denounced Versailles Treaty

  • Blamed Jews, communists for Germany’s problems

  • Promised return of German pride


Benito mussolini in italy

Benito Mussolini in Italy

  • Fascist leader who took control of Italy in 1922

  • Wanted to create another Roman Empire

  • Invaded Ethiopia in 1935

  • Along with Hitler supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War (combat experience)


Japanese expansion

Japanese Expansion

  • Sought total control of Pacific (resources)

  • 1931- military occupation of Manchuria

  • 1936- Japan signs Pact with Germany, Italy

  • Nanking Massacre- December 1937

October 1941: General Tojo became Prime Minister of Japan and wanted war with the US.


American neutrality isolationism

American Neutrality - Isolationism

  • Domestic: U.S. in midst of Great Depression, public intent on remaining neutral

  • Economic, military reasons for neutrality

  • Tried to prevent mistakes that led to WWI involvement

  • 1935: First Neutrality Act (no sale of arms to belligerent nations)

  • 1937: Arm sales only on “cash and carry” basis

  • FDR warns of impending problems


American involvement grows

American Involvement Grows

  • Neutrality Acts of the mid to late 1930’s made it impossible for the US to give loans to nations at war or to allow any combatant to buy on credit.

  • FDR had to find other ways to help out the British and the French in their fight against Fascism.

  • March 1941: Lend-lease began. This made it possible to lend or lease supplies to any country whose interests were vital.


The atlantic charter

The Atlantic Charter

  • August 1941: FDR and Winston Churchill met secretly on a ship off the coast of Newfoundland to agree on war goals, since both foresaw US joining the Allies, soon.

  • They agreed to ensure national sovereignty for all nations and drew up the outline for the United Nations. This was the Atlantic Charter.


Appeasement

Appeasement

  • 1938- Hitler invades Austria, Sudetenland on Czech border

  • Munich Conference (1938): Chamberlain and Daladier allow Hitler to do this (appeasement)

  • Chamberlain: “Peace in our time”

  • British rearmament


War erupts

War Erupts!!!

  • March 1939- Hitler breaks Munich agreement, invades rest of Czechoslovakia

  • August 1939- Hitler signs nonaggression pact with rival USSR, turns attention west

  • September 1, 1939- “blitzkrieg” invasion of Poland; Britain and France declare war on Germany


Quarterly review

Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, 1940

The Tripartite Pact


Quarterly review

United States and Japan

  • Japan wanted to extend influence in Far East

  • July 1940: U.S. embargo of raw materials to Japan

  • 1941: Lend-Lease aid to China

  • Anticipating attack in the Philippines

  • December 7, 1941: Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii


America enters war

America Enters War

  • Pearl Harbor attack devastates nation

  • FDR: “A date which will live in infamy”

  • December 8, 1941- FDR receives war declaration from Congress against Japan

  • Germany, Italy declare war on United States


Japanese american internment

Executive Order 9066

After Pearl Harbor, military officials began to investigate the Japanese American community for signs of spying or other illegal activity.

It was recommended that all people of Japanese background be removed from the West Coast.

Order 9066 established military zones and could force people to leave these zones.

Japanese Americans in California, Washington, Oregon, and Arizona were forced into internment camps.

Many lost their homes and businesses.

Japanese American Loyalty

While interned, Japanese Americans were forced to answer questions about their loyalty to the United States.

German and Italian Americans also faced restrictions.

Many young people from the camps joined the armed forces to prove their loyalty.

Not all Japanese Americans accepted their internment peacefully.

Some mounted legal challenges such as Korematsuv. United States.

Japanese American Internment


Sacrifice and struggle for americans at home

Sacrifice and Struggle for Americans at Home

  • Americans planted victory gardens.

  • The United States began rationing food items such as coffee, butter, sugar, and meat.

  • Metal, glass, rubber, and gasoline were scarce goods.

  • Americans held scrap drives to collect waste materials that might be used in the war effort.

Conserving

Food

and other

Goods

  • Americans bought millions of dollars worth of war bonds.

  • Over half of the population did their civic duty and bought war bonds.

Investing

in

Victory

  • Families dealt with the absence of loved ones by displaying a flag with a blue star.

  • Americans read news accounts of the war with great interest (Ernie Pyle – newspaper journalist).

Paying the

Personal

Price


Quarterly review

  • Women in the War

  • The most famous piece of propaganda from World War II is of “Rosie the Riveter” Rosie the Riveter was this strong lady on advertisements who talked women into helping out in the war effort.

  • A riveter is a bolt that is used in construction, it holds things together

  • Rosie the Riveter became a symbol for female strength and determination!

  • Women made all sorts of things for the war:

  • weapons, tanks, airplanes, boats, canned foods, clothing, medical supplies and much more!

  • Military Services: Women were in all of the branches of the military, including the Navy WAVES, the Army WACs and WASPs, Army nurses, the Coast Guard SPARS, and the Marine Corps Women's Reserve.


Minority americans in wwii

Minority-Americans in WWII

  • July 26, 1948, President Truman signs Executive Order 9981 . It integrates US military thus abolishing racial discrimination in the armed forces.

  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS: Racism was still a powerful force in American society. Early in the war, the marines and army air corps refused to take African American soldiers. Patton’s “Black Panther” Battalion at Battle of the Bulge & Tuskegee Airmen

  • MEXICAN –AMERICANS: Nearly 500,000 Hispanic Americans served in the American military during World War II. ZOOT SUIT RIOTS: Tensions between Mexican Americans and navy servicemen led to the Zoot Suit Riots, which resulted in the attacks on hundreds of pachucos. The Los Angeles police did little to stop the servicemen and, instead, arrested Mexican Americans and hauled them off to jail.

  • JEWISH – AMERICANS: Serving in the armed forces transformed the lives of many Jewish American GIs. Pleas by Jewish Americans to change immigration laws to allow refugees into the United States were ignored. Jewish American GIs often felt the sting of prejudice in the military.

  • JAPANESE – AMERICANS: Japanese American men fought in the 442nd Division, which won more medals than any other unit of its size in American history.


Nazi anti semitism

Nazi Anti-Semitism

  • Hitler in Power

  • Began campaign against Jews soon after becoming chancellor

  • Established a series of anti-Semitic laws (NUMERBERG LAWS)intended to drive Jews from Germany

  • Laws stripped Jews of their citizenship and took away most civil and economic rights.

  • Laws defined who was a Jew.

  • Fleeing Germany

  • Over 100,000 managed to leave Germany after Kristallnacht.

  • Others found it difficult to leave the country as Nazi laws had left many without money or property.

  • Many countries were unwilling to take in poor immigrants.

  • The United States limited the number of Germans immigrants.

  • Attacks on Jews

  • Many Germans supported Hitler’s anti-Semitic ideas.

  • Discrimination and violent attacks against Jews continued.

  • Anti-Jewish riots broke out in an attack called Kristallnacht.

  • Jews were sent to concentration camps, killed, and fined for the attack.


Concentration camps ghettos and the final solution

Concentration Camps, Ghettos, and the Final Solution

  • Camps

  • Prisons for Jews, prisoners-of-war, and enemies of the Nazi regime

  • Inmates received little food and were forced to labor.

  • The combination of overwork and starvation was intended to kill.

  • Punishment for minor offenses was swift, sure, and deadly.

  • Ghettos

  • Walls or fences kept the Jews inside and those trying to leave were shot.

  • Food was scarce; starvation was rampant.

  • Diseases spread rapidly.

  • The worst ghetto was in Warsaw, Poland.

  • Some Jews in the Warsaw ghetto—the Jewish Fighting Organization—fought back.

  • The Final Solution

  • Genocide – the killing of an entire people

  • Involved building 6 new extermination camps for Jews

  • Inmates were exposed to poison gas in specially built chambers.

  • 3 million Jews died in extermination camps.

  • 3 million Jews and 5 million others were killed by the Nazi using other means.


The participants

Allied Powers

England

Soviet Union (after German attack on June 22, 1941)

France

United States

Axis Powers

Italy

Germany

Japan

The Participants


The liberation of europe

The Liberation of Europe

  • FDR: Liberate Europe first and pursue an “active defense” in the Pacific

  • Battle of Atlantic: Hitler’s “Wolf Packs” vs. Allied Navies

  • Clear Germany from North Africa

  • Late 1942: Only Tunisia was controlled by Axis Powers


Allied advances in europe 1943 1944

Allied Advances in Europe (1943-1944)

  • January, 1943: Allies agree to fight until they win “unconditional surrender”

  • February 1943: SU takes back Stalingrad and moves westward

  • Same time, Allied victory in Tunisia secures Africa


Allied advancements cont

Allied Advancements Cont…

  • July 10, 1943: The invasion of Italy.

  • Fighting continues from July 1943 to June 1944 (70,000 Allied troops killed)

  • Separate peace was signed with new Italian government in September, 1943


Unconditional surrender in europe 1944 1945

Unconditional Surrender in Europe (1944-1945)

  • Britain and U.S. air raid strategic sights in Germany (Flying Fortresses)

  • June 6, 1944: D-Day and the Allied invasion of Normandy[“Operation Overlord”]

  • Battle at Normandy lasted from June 6-July 24

  • August 25, 1944: France liberated


Quarterly review

D-Day (June 6, 1944)


Germany s last gasp effort

Germany’s Last Gasp Effort

  • Hitler was caught between Allied troops coming from the West and Stalin’s forces coming from the East.

  • December 1944: Battle of the Bulge

  • April 25, 1945: Russia and Allied Forces meet at the Elbe River

  • May 8, 1945: Germany surrenders (V-E DAY)


Yalta conference february 1945

YALTA CONFERENCE (February 1945)

  • Allied leaders Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin—the so-called Big Three—met in the resort town of Yalta in the Soviet Union to discuss the end of the war and the peace that was to follow.

  • Plans for German surrender: A key goal was to determine what to do with Germany. The leaders agreed to divide the country into four sectors. The Americans, Soviets, British, and French would each occupy one of these sectors. Berlin was also divided into four sectors.

  • Stalin agrees to hold free elections (Poland and other Eastern European countries now occupied by the Soviets) and help with Japan


Allied military strategy in the pacific 1941 1945

Allied Military Strategy in the Pacific (1941-1945)

  • By 1942, Japan had controlled almost the entire area of the Pacific

  • Allies were able to hold on to Hawaii and Samoa

  • “Active defense” campaign:

    -Battle of the Coral Sea (May,1942)

    -Battle of Midway (June, 1942)

    -Battle of Guadalcanal (Aug. 1942-Feb. 1943)


Quarterly review

Allied Counter-Offensive:“Island-Hopping”

From February 1943 on, the US forces began to selectively attack enemy-held islands in the Pacific.

The Japanese fiercely defended their positions and both sides suffered heavy casualties.


The pacific theatre cont

The Pacific Theatre Cont…

  • The Allies took control of several islands in the Pacific under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur

    -Iwo Jima (1945)

    -Okinawa (1945)

  • The recapture of the Philippines was the highlight (Oct. 1944-March 1945)

  • Japanese kamikazes were suicide pilots who crashed their planes which were heavily loaded with bombs into allied ships.

  • During the war, the US experienced about 4,900 kamikaze attacks which destroyed 57 American ships and damaged about 650 others.


The atomic bomb

The Atomic Bomb

Harry S Truman became president when Roosevelt died. He had to decide whether the United States should use the Manhattan Project’s atomic bomb.

After consulting with his advisors, Truman decided to drop the bomb on a Japanese city. There would be no warning.

On August 6, 1945, the Enola Gay dropped its atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima.

Despite the horror caused by the bomb, the Japanese did not surrender.

On August 9, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki. Even this did not bring an end to the war.

Finally, on August 14/15 (both days are celebrated)– known from then on as V-J Day—the Japanese emperor Hirohito announced the end of the war.

Dr. Robert Oppenheimer


Challenges after the war

Challenges after the War

  • United Nations

  • Representatives from 50 countries met to form a new organization, the United Nations.

  • The UN was meant to encourage cooperation among nations and to prevent wars.

  • Potsdam Conference

  • Allied leaders met in the German city of Potsdam to discuss the spread of communism and Soviet influence in the postwar world.

  • Truman hoped to get Stalin to live up to his promises from Yalta.

  • Stalin did not do this.

  • Rebuilding

  • MacArthur led efforts to help Japan rebuild its government and economy.

  • Seven Japanese leaders were tried for war crimes.

  • Rebuilding Europe caused tensions between the U.S and the Soviet Union.


Quarterly review

The Nuremberg War Trials:Crimes Against Humanity


Quarterly review

Early Computer Technology Came Out of WW II

Colossus, 1941

Mark I, 1944


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