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Chapter 1. Basic Word Structure. Learning Objectives. Divide medical terms into component parts Analyze, pronounce, and spell medical terms using common combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes. Word Analysis. Important Word Parts: Root : the essential meaning of the term

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Basic Word Structure


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Divide medical terms into component parts

  • Analyze, pronounce, and spell medical terms using common combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes


Word analysis

Word Analysis

Important Word Parts:

  • Root: the essential meaning of the term

  • Suffix: word ending

  • Prefix: small part added to the beginning of the term

  • Combining vowel:connects roots to suffixes and roots to other roots

  • Combining form: the combination of the root and the combining vowel


Word analysis cont d

Word Analysis (cont’d.)

General rules:

  • Readthe meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the beginning of the term and then across

  • Drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel: gastritis not gastroitis

  • Keep the combining vowel word roots: gastroenterology not gastrenterology


Word analysis cont d1

Word Analysis (cont’d.)

Example:

ELECTR/O/CARDI/O/GRAM means record of

electricity in the heart

ELECTR: root

O:combining vowel

CARDI:root

O:combining vowel

GRAM:suffix


Word analysis cont d2

Word Analysis (cont’d.)

Example:

SUB/GASTR/IC means pertaining to under

the stomach

SUB: Prefix (under)

GASTR:Root(stomach)

IC:Suffix(pertaining to)


Combining forms

Combining forms

Examples:

aden/o:gland

cardi/o:heart

gastr/ostomach

gnos/o:knowledge

psych/o:mind

cerebr/o:cerebrum, largest part of the brain


Functions of the cerebrum

Functions of the Cerebrum


The urinary tract

The Urinary Tract


Location of small and large intestines in the abdominal cavity

Location of Small and Large Intestines in the Abdominal Cavity


Blood cells

Blood Cells


Suffixes

Suffixes

Examples:

- alpertaining to

- ectomycutting out; removal, excision

- iacondition

- sisstate of

- tomyprocess of cutting into; incision


Prefixes

Prefixes

Examples

a-, an-no, not

dia-complete, through

endo-within

hypo-below, less than normal

pro-before, forward

trans-across, through


Pronunciation of terms

Pronunciation of Terms

The capitalized letters in boldface are the

accented syllable.

  • AR-thro-gram = arthrogram

  • seh-FAL-jah = cephalgia

  • DIS-en-teh-re = dysentery

  • e-lek-tro-en-SEF-ah-lo-gram = electroencephalogram

  • gas-TROS-ko-pe = gastroscopy


Pronunciation of terms cont d

Pronunciation of Terms (cont’d.)

  • hep-ah-TO-mah = hepatoma

  • lap-ah-ROS-ko-pe = laparoscopy

  • nu-RAL-jah = neuralgia

  • os-te-I-tis = osteitis

  • ri-NI-tis = rhinitis

  • sub-heh-PAT-ik = subhepatic

  • trans-u-RE-thral = transurethral


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