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Chapter 10. Periodic Trends Density Atomic and Ionic Radii. Density. Density. Iridium (Z = 77) has the highest density. Why not Meitnerium (Z = 109?) We can predict that an element is more dense if it is closer to Iridium. Density. Effective Nuclear Charge (Z eff ).

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Presentation Transcript
Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Periodic Trends

Density

Atomic and Ionic Radii



Density1
Density

  • Iridium (Z = 77) has the highest density.

  • Why not Meitnerium (Z = 109?)

  • We can predict that an element is more dense if it is closer to Iridium.



Effective nuclear charge z eff
Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff)

  • The effective nuclear charge (Zeff) of an atom is basically how well it is able to hold on to its most loosely held electron.


Atomic radius radii
Atomic radius (radii)

  • Theatomic radius is essentially the size of an atom.

  • The largest atom is Francium (Z = 87).


Atomic Radius

Xylophone monkey


Rank the atoms from smallest to largest
Rank the atoms from smallest to largest

Na, K, O, N

O < N < Na < K


Atomic radius and effective nuclear charge
Atomic Radius and Effective Nuclear Charge

  • The atomic radius decreases as effective nuclear charge increases.


Effective nuclear charge z eff1
Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff)

  • The effective nuclear charge of an atom is primarily determined by:

  • The nuclear charge

  • The shielding effect


The nuclear charge z
The Nuclear Charge (Z)

  • Based on the number of protons in the nucleus.

    • Example: Carbon vs. Nitrogen


The nuclear charge z1
The Nuclear Charge (Z)

Carbon

Nitrogen


The nuclear charge z2
The Nuclear Charge (Z)

  • The greater the number of protons in the nucleus the greater the effective nuclear charge.

Nitrogen

Carbon


Conclusion: Nitrogen is a smaller atom than carbon because nitrogen has 7 protons to pull in its electrons whereas carbon only has 6.

Nitrogen

Carbon


Nuclear charge explains why atoms get smaller across a period

Atomic Radius

Xylophone monkey


Shielding effect
Shielding Effect. period

  • The shielding effect is when electrons between the nucleus and the outermost electrons in an atom shield or lessen the hold of the nucleus on the outermost electrons.


Shielding effect1
Shielding Effect. period

He

Ne


Conclusion: Neon is larger than helium because it has an increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

He

Ne


Shielding Effect explains why atoms get larger down a group increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

Atomic Radius

Xylophone monkey


Chemical reactivity
Chemical Reactivity increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.


Chemical reactivity1
Chemical Reactivity increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.


Chemical reactivity2
Chemical Reactivity increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

  • Metals tend to lose electrons when reacting.

    • Large metal atoms are more reactive.

  • Nonmetals tend to gain electrons when reacting.

    • Small nonmetal atoms are more reactive.


Chemical reactivity3
Chemical Reactivity increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

  • Metals increase in reactivity left and down.

  • Nonmetals become more reactive up and to the right.

  • Most reactive metal is?

  • Most reactive nonmetal is?

Fr

F


Ionic radius
Ionic Radius increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

  • Ionic Radius is the size of an ion.


Size change in ion formation
Size Change in Ion Formation increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.


Rules for ionic radius
Rules for Ionic Radius increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

  • Anions (negative ions) are “always” larger than cations (positive ions).

  • Ionic Radius goes by the same rules as atomic radius (ions get larger as we move down and to the left).

  • However it is necessary to treat anions and cations separately. (Anions are bigger).


Rank the ions from smallest to largest
Rank the ions from smallest to largest increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

K+, N3-, Na+, O2-

Na+ < K+ < O2- < N3-


Homework
Homework increased shielding effect from having two energy levels whereas helium only has one energy level.

  • Worksheet: Density, Atomic and Ionic Radii


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