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Shared Decision Making: The Hoy-Tarter Simplified Model PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Shared Decision Making: The Hoy-Tarter Simplified Model. Question. Should you involve subordinates in the decision-making process? Natural systems --human relations Answer-- “Of Course!” Rational systems-scientific management Answer-- Only if they have expertise.

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Shared Decision Making: The Hoy-Tarter Simplified Model

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Shared Decision Making:

The Hoy-Tarter

Simplified Model


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Question

  • Should you involve subordinates in the decision-making process?

  • Natural systems --human relations Answer--

  • “Of Course!”

  • Rational systems-scientific management Answer--

  • Only if they have expertise.

  • Open systems-social science Answer--

  • “It Depends!”


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Four Critical Questions

• Under what conditions should the leader involve subordinates in decision making?

• To what extent should subordinates be involved?

• How should the decision making group be structured and function?

• What is the role of the leader in participative leadership?


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Assumptions of the Hoy-Tarter Model

  • As subordinates are involved in decision making located within their ZONE OF ACCEPTANCE, participation will be less effective.

  • As subordinates are involved in decision making outside their ZONE OF ACCEPTANCE, participation will be more effective.

  • As participants are involved in decision making for which they have MARGINAL EXPERTISE, their participation will be marginally effective.

  • As subordinates are involved in decision making for which they have MARGINAL INTEREST, their participation will be marginally effective.


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Zone of Acceptance

Do subordinates have a personal stake in the outcome?

YES NO

Outside Zone of

Acceptance

(Definitely include)

Marginal with

Expertise

(Occasionally include)

YES

Do subordinates

have expertise?

Marginal with

Relevance

(Occasionally include)

Inside Zone of

Acceptance

(Definitely exclude)

NO


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Another Important Question

Can you trust subordinates to make a decision in the best interest of the organization?

Thus there are three critical questions:

Do subordinates have a personal stake in the outcomes of the decision?

[The Relevance Question]

2. Do subordinates have the expertise to make a knowledgeable contribution?

[The Expertise Question]

3. Can you trust subordinates to make a decision in the best interest of the organization?

[The Trust Question]


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Situations for Participative Decision Making

Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative

Relevance? Yes Yes Yes No No

Expertise? Yes Yes No Yes No

Trust? Yes No Yes/No Yes/No N/A


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Decision Situations: Review

  • Democratic

  • Conflictual

  • Stakeholder

  • Expert

  • Noncollaborative


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Decision Situations and

Degree of Involvement

  • Democratic--Maximum Involvement.

  • Conflictual--Limit Involvement (until trust is developed).

  • Stakeholder--Occasional Involvement (to educate).

  • Expert--Occasional Involvement (for better decisions).

  • Noncollaborative--No Involvement.


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Decision-Making Groups

and Their Functions

Group

Consensus

Group

Majority

Group

Advisory

Individual

Advisory

Unilateral

Who is Leader Leader Leader Leader and Leader

Involved? and Group and Group and Group Selected

Individuals

Nature of Group shares Group shares Group shares Individuals No subordinate

Involvement? information, information, information, provide data, involvement

analyzes and deliberates, analyzes and discuss, and

reaches and votes on recommends. recommend.

consensus. action.

Who makes Group by Group by Leader with Leader with Leader Alone

the decision? Consensus Majority Rule Advice Advice


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Five Leadership Roles

The integrator brings subordinates together for consensus decision-making. Here the task is to reconcile divergent opinions and positions.

The parliamentarian facilitates open communication by protecting the opinions of the

minority and leads through a democratic process to a group decision.

The educator reduces resistance to change by explaining and discussing with group

members the opportunities and constrains of the decisional issues.

The solicitor seeks advice from subordinate-experts. The quality of decisions is improved

As the administrator guides the generation of relevant information.

The director makes unilateral decisions in those instances where the subordinates have

no expertise or personal stake. Here the goal is efficiency.


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Administrative Roles for

Decision Making

RoleFunction Aim

IntegratorBrings together divergent positions To achieve consensus

ParliamentarianFacilitates open discussion To support reflective deliberation

EducatorExplains and discusses issues To assure acceptance of decisions

SolicitorSolicits advice from teachers To improve quality of decisions

DirectorMakes unilateral decisions To attain efficiency


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A Normative Model for

Participative Decision Making

Relevance

YES

NO

Marginal with

Expertise

YES

Outside Zone

Expertise

Marginal with

Relevance

NO

Inside Zone

Trust

YES

NO

1. Situation? Democratic Conflictual Stakeholder Expert Noncollaborative

2. Involvement? Yes and extensive Yes but limited Occasionally Occasionally None

and limited and limited

3. Decision- Group Group Group Group Individual Unilateral

Making Consensus Majority Advisory Advisory Advisory

Structures

4. Role of Integrator Parliamentarian Educator Educator Solicitor Director

Superior?


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