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Most Common Ocular Conditions. Common Conditions Affecting the Retina. Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD). Definition. Chronic deterioration of the macula. Central vision loss. Prevalence. Leading cause of visual impairment in persons over 60.

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Most Common Ocular Conditions

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Most common ocular conditions

Most Common Ocular Conditions

Common Conditions Affecting the Retina

Age related macular degeneration armd

Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD)



  • Chronic deterioration of the macula.

  • Central vision loss.



  • Leading cause of visual impairment in persons over 60.

  • The older you are the more likely you are to have ARMD.



  • Objects appearing smaller or farther away



  • Straight lines or faces appearing wavy

  • Doorways seeming crooked

Amsler grid

Amsler Grid

Most common ocular conditions

  • Trouble in discerning colors; specifically dark ones from dark ones and light ones from light ones.

  • Slow recovery of visual function after exposure to bright light

  • A loss in contrast sensitivity.

Timing of symptoms

Timing of Symptoms

  • Symptoms may come on so slowly that people don’t notice them.


  • They may come on quickly and dramatically.

Risk factors

Risk factors

  • No one knows why it happens, but risk factors include:

    • Obesity

    • High blood pressure

    • Smoking

    • High cholesterol

    • Family history

    • Gender – women more likely to get ARMD than men

    • Ethnicity – more likely to occur in Caucasians



  • Often causes loss of ability to read or do fine motor tasks, but persons with ARMD are typically able to continue to perform functional activities because the peripheral retina continues to function.

Wet macular degeneration

Wet Macular Degeneration

  • In the wet form, which is more severe, blood vessels grow up from the choroid behind the retina, and the retina can also become detached.

How is wet armd treated

How is Wet ARMD treated?

  • Laser surgery

  • Cryro-therapy

  • Drugs

Dry macular degeneration

Dry Macular Degeneration

  • In the dry form, debris called drusen accumulate between the retina and the choroid, and the retina can become detached.



Some indication that the following vitamins and minerals are helpful to either avoid development of ARMD or slow down its progression

  • zinc,

  • lutein,

  • vitamins A, C and E

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