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Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd. Simulex: Analysis & Changes for IMO Compliance. Peter Thompson Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd. Håkan Lindström Sakerhetspartner AB Per-Anders Ohlsson Sakerhetspartner AB Stephen Thompson Northern Marine Management Ltd. Introduction.

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Integrated environmental solutions ltd

Integrated Environmental Solutions Ltd.

Simulex: Analysis & Changes for IMO Compliance

Peter ThompsonIntegrated Environmental Solutions Ltd.

Håkan LindströmSakerhetspartner AB

Per-Anders OhlssonSakerhetspartner AB

Stephen ThompsonNorthern Marine Management Ltd.


Introduction

Introduction

  • Changes to software ?

    • Walking speeds & populations

  • Testing: Areas of interest

    • Analysis of flow rates etc.

    • Qualitative behaviour

    • Effect of life jackets on movement

  • Test Cases: Day & Night

    • Assessment of software performance


Modelling individual movement

Modelling individual movement

  • Movement based on cartesian coordinates, NOT network-node mesh

  • Flow rates never fixed in Simulex:

    • Movement based on speed vs. inter-person distance formula

    • Acceleration, rates of body twist, natural walking speed

  • Custom populations defined:

    • IMO Ship Passengers

    • IMO Ship Crew

    • IMO Passengers 30-50yrs

    • SFV-1.2m/s

    • SFV-1.2m/s(+jacket)

    • Commuter


Component testing

Component Testing

  • Elementary test scenarios

  • Exit Flow Rate:

    • 100 persons through a 1 metre exit

    • “the flow rate over the entire period should not exceed 1.33 p/s”

    • Population type not specified

  • Additional Investigation:

    • Different population demographics

    • Effect of with / without life-jackets


Flow rate results

Flow Rate Results

  • Passenger flow rate 44% lower than crew

  • Life-jacket passengers 12% lower flow rate


Qualitative verification

Qualitative Verification

  • “…assess how the general behaviour of the modelling software performs, by producing reasonable patterns of movement and behaviour”

  • Tests of particular interest:

    • Counterflow tests

    • Large public room test

    • Staircase test


Counterflow tests

Counterflow Tests

  • 1, 10, 100 people vs. 100 oncoming (from left)

  • 1 person makes slow progress, many more jam

    • Advanced collision avoidance currently being implemented

    • No reliable validation data available


Evacuation of a public room

Evacuation of a Public Room

  • Public room: 1000 ‘commuters’, 4 x 1.0m exits

  • Test: evacuation time doubles with only 2 exits


Public room flow rates

Public Room: Flow Rates

  • Evacuation Times:

    • 4 Exits = 198 sec.

    • 2 Exits = 396 sec.


Staircase test

Staircase Test

  • Occupants move from a congested room into a staircase

  • Expected behaviour:

    • Heavy congestion at exit of room

    • Additional congestion at base of stairs

  • Flow rates as expected at exit

  • Quantified flow rate on stairs:

    • 20 – 30% less than on level surface

    • Greatest effect on mixed-ability groups


Staircase test flow rates

Staircase Test: Flow rates


Test case evacuations

Test Case Evacuations

  • Primary Test Case Scenarios:

    • Day Case (1139 passengers, decks to assembly)

    • Night Case (449 passengers, cabins to assembly)


Test case evacuations results

Test Case Evacuations: Results


Emergency evacuation of ships comment

Emergency Evacuation of Ships: Comment

  • Additional considerations:

    • Fire & watertight doors shut automatically ?

    • Alternative route selections required ?

    • Follow signage and guidance from crew.

  • Escape routes:

    • Crew control route from muster to disembark

    • If the vessel is docked, gangways are used

    • Modern escape systems, such as chutes ?


Summary of flow rate investigations

Summary of Flow Rate Investigations

  • IMO Flow rates require revision:

    • 1.33 p/m/s not suitable for passengers on level decks (0.9 p/m/s more suitable ?)

    • 0.88 p/m/s not suitable for passengers on stairs (0.7 p/m/s more suitable ?)

    • Lifejackets reduce flow rate by 12%

    • Reduced flows for doors < 1.1m wide

    • Further validation ?


Concluding remarks

Concluding remarks

  • Simulex required few changes

  • IMO Flow rates need to be reviewed

    • Consider effects of population demographics

  • Consider merits of counterflow test

    • No validation available

  • I.M.O. to be commended on first attempt at international guidance for use of computer modelling of life safety during evacuations.


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