Improvements in microwave and sub mm frontend technology for use up to 900ghz
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Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), Germany. Improvements in Microwave and Sub-mm Frontend Technology for Use up to 900GHz. Harald Czekala RPG Thomas RoseRPG AchimWalber RPG Hugh GibsonRPG Oleg CojocariACST Byron AldermanSTFC RAL. RPG Company Profile. Microwave, sub-mm, THz

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Improvements in Microwave and Sub-mm Frontend Technology for Use up to 900GHz

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Improvements in microwave and sub mm frontend technology for use up to 900ghz

Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), Germany

Improvements in Microwave and Sub-mm Frontend Technology for Use up to 900GHz

Harald Czekala RPG

Thomas RoseRPG

AchimWalber RPGHugh GibsonRPG

Oleg CojocariACST

Byron AldermanSTFC RAL


Rpg company profile

RPG Company Profile

Microwave, sub-mm, THz

Turn-key radiometers, space technology components, design, scientific expertise

■ 4 decades experience

■ 40 employees

■ Radiometers (space)

■ Frontends/Receivers

■ Lab equipment / VNA

■ Components up to THz

■ Design+Manufacturing


Outline

Outline

  • Direct detection (MMIC) for frequencies up to 120 GHz

  • Auto-calibration receivers up to 200 GHz (noise-injection / Dicke sw.)

  • Improvements in mixer and multiplier designs through close cooperation with Schottky diode suppliers

    • Schottky technology from ACST (Germany)

    • Schottky technology from RAL (UK)

  • Subharmonic mixers at 424 GHz and 664 GHz

  • InGaAS mixers with reduction of LO power by 10 dB


Direct detection

Direct Detection

  • Direct detection systems up to 110 GHz (since 8 years now…)

  • LNA mostly based on MMIC supply from IAF Freiburg, Germany

  • At 118 / 150 / 183 GHz and above, sub-harmonic mixers still have better performance (at least with high-quality sub-harmonic mixers)

  • Waveguide filters with high stability and narrow bandwidth (0.25 %)

55 dB Pre-Amplifier

Splitter and

Filter Section

Boosters and

Detectors

Video Amps,

MUX, 16 Bit ADC

Noise Injection

Coupler

51- 59 GHz

7 Channel

Filterbank Receiver

170 mm

Corrugated

Feedhorn


Direct detection receivers

Direct Detection Receivers

Compared to heterodyne systems:

  • Improved noise figure

  • Decreased long term stability (larger 1/f noise with InP MMICs)

  • Much better RFI protection

  • Compact (integrated) design

  • No planar filters, all waveguide

Low loss Ortho-Mode Transducer

Tsys < 600 K (NF: 4.9)

90 GHz dual-pol (FM)


Direct detection mmic mounting

Direct Detection: MMIC mounting

  • Mounting of all amplifier types

  • Experience in micromachining

  • Bonding and soldering to space standards


Auto calibration receivers noise injection dicke switching

Auto-calibration receivers: Noise injection, Dicke Switching

Uambient+noise

Uambient

DetectorVoltage

Usignal

Usignal

Repetition: 5 Hz

Duty cycle: 45 % (due to 10 ms switch time)

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Time / s

Fast calibration with noise diodes and ambient load(gain and Tsys are calibrated)

Ambient load / Dicke switch:Isolatorsdriven by switchedmagnetic field

Noise diodes:mounted directlyin a waveguidecoupling section

Applied to direct detectionas well as heterodynereceivers


Auto calibration receivers ii

Auto-Calibration Receivers (II)

  • Noise injection calibration up to 200 GHz

    • 7.000 K signal at 183 GHz with stable noise diode (15 dB ENR)

  • Magnetically switched isolators:Dicke switching up to 150 GHz with low insertion loss (≤1.0 dB)

    • Fast switching with low currents (small thermal effects, 100 mA, 0.5 V)

ESA-ATPROP 15 / 90 GHz

  • Allan Variance Stability: 4.000 s

  • Less dependent on external calibration

    targets (LN2)!


Auto calibration receivers iii 90 150 ghz system

Auto-calibration receivers (III): 90+150 GHz system

Achieved System Noise Temperatures:

(incl. noise injection coupler, Dicke switch, isolator)

90 GHz: 750 K

150 GHz: 1200 K

Full internal calibrationIsolation > 30 dB

Insertion loss @ 90 GHz: 0.7 dB

Insertion loss @ 150 GHz: 1.0 dB

Allan Variance

up to 4000 s


Auto calibration receivers iv 183 ghz system

Auto-calibration receivers (IV): 183 GHz system

Heterodyne receiver at 183 GHzwith 6 channel Filterbank

  • Channel centers in IF: 0.6, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.5 GHz

  • Noise injection for calibration

  • Tsys=1200 K for complete radiometer

  • Tsys=380 to 450 K for mixer

  • Schottky mixer diodeby ACST (Germany)

Dome-C, Antarctica

3.300m asl, -25 to -80 °C

Close to South-Pole

Similar System on HAMP

(HALO Microwave Package)

for HALO research aircraft


Schottky mixer and multiplier improvements

Schottky Mixer and Multiplier Improvements

Anode pillar

(contact pad)

Air-bridge

Membrane-

substrate

Mesa with

anode

Cathode pillar

(contact pad)

Back-side ohmic

25μm

50μm

Air-bridges

Mesas

Membrane-

substrate

Protection pillars

(contact pads)

Back-side ohmic

RAL Diode

  • Planar technology

  • Discrete Schottky devices

  • Semi-integrated and full integrated structures

    Two collaborations:

  • STFC/RAL, UK

  • ACST, Germany

    Mandatory improvements

    for 800 to 1000 GHz

    circuit mountings:

  • Reduced Cj0

  • Reduced Cstr

  • Smaller size

    ESTEC Contract 22032/08/NL/JA: Sub-Millimeter Wave Receiver Front-End (at 664 GHz)

    ESTEC Contract 21628/08/NL/GLC: Integrated Schottky Structures (at 664 GHz)

ACST Diode

Quasi-vertical (QVD) single Diode (SD)

Anti-parallel (APD) diode


Improved diodes vector network analyzer products

Improved Diodes: Vector Network Analyzer Products

50–75 GHz

60 – 90 GHz

75–110 GHz

90 – 140 GHz

110 – 170 GHz

140–220 GHz

220–325 GHz 325–500 GHz

(500 – 750 GHz)

OEM

Network Analyzer Frequency Extenders

for

Rohde & Schwarz

Courtesy of Rohde & Schwarz


Improved diodes tx rx products

Improved Diodes: Tx/Rx Products

Transmit / Receive Systems:

90 GHz183 GHz

220 GHz324 GHz

502 GHz640 GHz

870 GHz

For compact ranges

(antenna measurement facilities, phase + amplitude)

Multipixel Array

220 – 325 GHz


Improved diodes rpg sub harmonic mixers

Improved Diodes: RPG sub-harmonic mixers


Receiver technology 183 ghz example

Receiver technology – 183 GHz example

183 GHz feeds and sub-harmonic

mixers for ALMA-WVR

  • Best 183 GHz receivers available

  • Built in larger numbers

  • Noise-injection calibration @183(RPG only manufacturer world wide)

  • All ALMA water vapor radiometers equipped with RPG mixers and feeds


Improved diodes rpg sub harmonic mixers1

Improved Diodes: RPG sub-harmonic mixers


Sub harmonic mixer 424 ghz

Sub-Harmonic Mixer: 424 GHz

LO Power: 5 mW

Tmix=800 to 1200 K

Tsys=1800 K

(Feed, SHM, IF Amp, Detection)

Conversion= –7 dB


Sub harmonic mixer 664 ghz

Sub-Harmonic Mixer: 664 GHz

LO Power: 3 mW

Tmix ≈ 1600 K

Conversion: –7.5 to –9.5 dB


Further schottky diode optimization ingaas

Further Schottky Diode Optimization: InGaAs

Only at ACST:InGaAs Diode

  • InGaAs built-in voltage (barrier height) significantly lower than GaAs(0.2eV compared to 0.8eV)

  • Reduced LO power required for SHM at 183 GHz: 0.34 mW (10 dB less!)

183 GHz InGaAs mixer with 0.2 / 0.25 / 0.34 mW LO-power


Examples frontends and sub systems for space

Examples: Frontends and sub-systems for Space

FIRST/HIFI

FIRST/HIFI

  • Space qualified local oscillators (Herschel / ESA):

  • 8 local oscillator chains from 480 GHz to 1100 GHz

  • Other space projects:

  • EOS (NASA), ODIN (SSA), FIRST/HIFI,

  • MARFEQ, SAPHIR (CNES), MLS (NASA), FY-3 (China), …


Space products ii

Space Products (II)

Space qualified front ends (China, FY-3):

183 GHz (4 channels) water vapour sounder


Space products iii

Space Products (III)

  • Space qualified front ends (China, FY-3):

  • 90 GHz dual polarized receiver OMT + LNA + (either Direct Detection or Heterodyne)

  • 150 GHz dual polarized receiver: OMT + SHM


Conclusion summary

Conclusion / Summary

  • Direct detection with superior performance (over heterodyne) up to 120 GHz (until better MMIC LNA technology becomes available)

  • Auto-calibration receivers up to 200 GHz

  • Cooperation with Schottky diode manufacturers for improved devices

  • Development of improved mixers and multipliers up to 900 GHz, leading to:

    • VNA extenders covering all bands to 500 GHz (and soon even further)

    • Transmit/Receive systems up to 900 GHz

    • Excellent sub-harmonic mixers

    • Outstanding performance at 183 GHz, 424 GHz, 664 GHz

      Further steps:

      ■ Substrate Transfer ■ High-Power varactors (driver stages for THz)

      ■ Film Diode Technology ■ Continuing reduction of capacities and size

      Results partly supported by:

      ESTEC Contract 22032/08/NL/JA: Sub-Millimeter Wave Receiver Front-End@ 664 GHz

      ESTEC Contract 21628/08/NL/GLC: Integrated Schottky Structures @ 664 GHz

      Thank you!


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