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Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), Germany. Improvements in Microwave and Sub-mm Frontend Technology for Use up to 900GHz. Harald Czekala RPG Thomas Rose RPG AchimWalber RPG Hugh Gibson RPG Oleg Cojocari ACST Byron Alderman STFC RAL. RPG Company Profile. Microwave, sub-mm, THz

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Improvements in microwave and sub mm frontend technology for use up to 900ghz

Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), Germany

Improvements in Microwave and Sub-mm Frontend Technology for Use up to 900GHz

Harald Czekala RPG

Thomas Rose RPG

AchimWalber RPGHugh Gibson RPG

Oleg Cojocari ACST

Byron Alderman STFC RAL


Rpg company profile
RPG Company Profile

Microwave, sub-mm, THz

Turn-key radiometers, space technology components, design, scientific expertise

■ 4 decades experience

■ 40 employees

■ Radiometers (space)

■ Frontends/Receivers

■ Lab equipment / VNA

■ Components up to THz

■ Design+Manufacturing


Outline
Outline

  • Direct detection (MMIC) for frequencies up to 120 GHz

  • Auto-calibration receivers up to 200 GHz (noise-injection / Dicke sw.)

  • Improvements in mixer and multiplier designs through close cooperation with Schottky diode suppliers

    • Schottky technology from ACST (Germany)

    • Schottky technology from RAL (UK)

  • Subharmonic mixers at 424 GHz and 664 GHz

  • InGaAS mixers with reduction of LO power by 10 dB


Direct detection
Direct Detection

  • Direct detection systems up to 110 GHz (since 8 years now…)

  • LNA mostly based on MMIC supply from IAF Freiburg, Germany

  • At 118 / 150 / 183 GHz and above, sub-harmonic mixers still have better performance (at least with high-quality sub-harmonic mixers)

  • Waveguide filters with high stability and narrow bandwidth (0.25 %)

55 dB Pre-Amplifier

Splitter and

Filter Section

Boosters and

Detectors

Video Amps,

MUX, 16 Bit ADC

Noise Injection

Coupler

51- 59 GHz

7 Channel

Filterbank Receiver

170 mm

Corrugated

Feedhorn


Direct detection receivers
Direct Detection Receivers

Compared to heterodyne systems:

  • Improved noise figure

  • Decreased long term stability (larger 1/f noise with InP MMICs)

  • Much better RFI protection

  • Compact (integrated) design

  • No planar filters, all waveguide

Low loss Ortho-Mode Transducer

Tsys < 600 K (NF: 4.9)

90 GHz dual-pol (FM)


Direct detection mmic mounting
Direct Detection: MMIC mounting

  • Mounting of all amplifier types

  • Experience in micromachining

  • Bonding and soldering to space standards


Auto calibration receivers noise injection dicke switching
Auto-calibration receivers: Noise injection, Dicke Switching

Uambient+noise

Uambient

DetectorVoltage

Usignal

Usignal

Repetition: 5 Hz

Duty cycle: 45 % (due to 10 ms switch time)

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

Time / s

Fast calibration with noise diodes and ambient load(gain and Tsys are calibrated)

Ambient load / Dicke switch:Isolatorsdriven by switchedmagnetic field

Noise diodes:mounted directlyin a waveguidecoupling section

Applied to direct detectionas well as heterodynereceivers


Auto calibration receivers ii
Auto-Calibration Receivers (II)

  • Noise injection calibration up to 200 GHz

    • 7.000 K signal at 183 GHz with stable noise diode (15 dB ENR)

  • Magnetically switched isolators:Dicke switching up to 150 GHz with low insertion loss (≤1.0 dB)

    • Fast switching with low currents (small thermal effects, 100 mA, 0.5 V)

ESA-ATPROP 15 / 90 GHz

  • Allan Variance Stability: 4.000 s

  • Less dependent on external calibration

    targets (LN2)!


Auto calibration receivers iii 90 150 ghz system
Auto-calibration receivers (III): 90+150 GHz system

Achieved System Noise Temperatures:

(incl. noise injection coupler, Dicke switch, isolator)

90 GHz: 750 K

150 GHz: 1200 K

Full internal calibrationIsolation > 30 dB

Insertion loss @ 90 GHz: 0.7 dB

Insertion loss @ 150 GHz: 1.0 dB

Allan Variance

up to 4000 s


Auto calibration receivers iv 183 ghz system
Auto-calibration receivers (IV): 183 GHz system

Heterodyne receiver at 183 GHzwith 6 channel Filterbank

  • Channel centers in IF: 0.6, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0, 7.5 GHz

  • Noise injection for calibration

  • Tsys=1200 K for complete radiometer

  • Tsys=380 to 450 K for mixer

  • Schottky mixer diodeby ACST (Germany)

Dome-C, Antarctica

3.300m asl, -25 to -80 °C

Close to South-Pole

Similar System on HAMP

(HALO Microwave Package)

for HALO research aircraft


Schottky mixer and multiplier improvements
Schottky Mixer and Multiplier Improvements

Anode pillar

(contact pad)

Air-bridge

Membrane-

substrate

Mesa with

anode

Cathode pillar

(contact pad)

Back-side ohmic

25μm

50μm

Air-bridges

Mesas

Membrane-

substrate

Protection pillars

(contact pads)

Back-side ohmic

RAL Diode

  • Planar technology

  • Discrete Schottky devices

  • Semi-integrated and full integrated structures

    Two collaborations:

  • STFC/RAL, UK

  • ACST, Germany

    Mandatory improvements

    for 800 to 1000 GHz

    circuit mountings:

  • Reduced Cj0

  • Reduced Cstr

  • Smaller size

    ESTEC Contract 22032/08/NL/JA: Sub-Millimeter Wave Receiver Front-End (at 664 GHz)

    ESTEC Contract 21628/08/NL/GLC: Integrated Schottky Structures (at 664 GHz)

ACST Diode

Quasi-vertical (QVD) single Diode (SD)

Anti-parallel (APD) diode


Improved diodes vector network analyzer products
Improved Diodes: Vector Network Analyzer Products

50–75 GHz

60 – 90 GHz

75–110 GHz

90 – 140 GHz

110 – 170 GHz

140–220 GHz

220–325 GHz 325–500 GHz

(500 – 750 GHz)

OEM

Network Analyzer Frequency Extenders

for

Rohde & Schwarz

Courtesy of Rohde & Schwarz


Improved diodes tx rx products
Improved Diodes: Tx/Rx Products

Transmit / Receive Systems:

90 GHz 183 GHz

220 GHz 324 GHz

502 GHz 640 GHz

870 GHz

For compact ranges

(antenna measurement facilities, phase + amplitude)

Multipixel Array

220 – 325 GHz



Receiver technology 183 ghz example
Receiver technology – 183 GHz example

183 GHz feeds and sub-harmonic

mixers for ALMA-WVR

  • Best 183 GHz receivers available

  • Built in larger numbers

  • Noise-injection calibration @183(RPG only manufacturer world wide)

  • All ALMA water vapor radiometers equipped with RPG mixers and feeds



Sub harmonic mixer 424 ghz
Sub-Harmonic Mixer: 424 GHz

LO Power: 5 mW

Tmix=800 to 1200 K

Tsys=1800 K

(Feed, SHM, IF Amp, Detection)

Conversion= –7 dB


Sub harmonic mixer 664 ghz
Sub-Harmonic Mixer: 664 GHz

LO Power: 3 mW

Tmix ≈ 1600 K

Conversion: –7.5 to –9.5 dB


Further schottky diode optimization ingaas
Further Schottky Diode Optimization: InGaAs

Only at ACST:InGaAs Diode

  • InGaAs built-in voltage (barrier height) significantly lower than GaAs(0.2eV compared to 0.8eV)

  • Reduced LO power required for SHM at 183 GHz: 0.34 mW (10 dB less!)

183 GHz InGaAs mixer with 0.2 / 0.25 / 0.34 mW LO-power


Examples frontends and sub systems for space
Examples: Frontends and sub-systems for Space

FIRST/HIFI

FIRST/HIFI

  • Space qualified local oscillators (Herschel / ESA):

  • 8 local oscillator chains from 480 GHz to 1100 GHz

  • Other space projects:

  • EOS (NASA), ODIN (SSA), FIRST/HIFI,

  • MARFEQ, SAPHIR (CNES), MLS (NASA), FY-3 (China), …


Space products ii
Space Products (II)

Space qualified front ends (China, FY-3):

183 GHz (4 channels) water vapour sounder


Space products iii
Space Products (III)

  • Space qualified front ends (China, FY-3):

  • 90 GHz dual polarized receiver OMT + LNA + (either Direct Detection or Heterodyne)

  • 150 GHz dual polarized receiver: OMT + SHM


Conclusion summary
Conclusion / Summary

  • Direct detection with superior performance (over heterodyne) up to 120 GHz (until better MMIC LNA technology becomes available)

  • Auto-calibration receivers up to 200 GHz

  • Cooperation with Schottky diode manufacturers for improved devices

  • Development of improved mixers and multipliers up to 900 GHz, leading to:

    • VNA extenders covering all bands to 500 GHz (and soon even further)

    • Transmit/Receive systems up to 900 GHz

    • Excellent sub-harmonic mixers

    • Outstanding performance at 183 GHz, 424 GHz, 664 GHz

      Further steps:

      ■ Substrate Transfer ■ High-Power varactors (driver stages for THz)

      ■ Film Diode Technology ■ Continuing reduction of capacities and size

      Results partly supported by:

      ESTEC Contract 22032/08/NL/JA: Sub-Millimeter Wave Receiver Front-End @ 664 GHz

      ESTEC Contract 21628/08/NL/GLC: Integrated Schottky Structures @ 664 GHz

      Thank you!


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