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Chapter 18.4. Directional Selection. AP Biology Spring 2011. Directional Selection. Directional Selection : shifts allele frequencies in a consistent direction (selection in the direction of a particular range of phenotypes)

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Chapter 18.4

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Chapter 18 4

Chapter 18.4

Directional Selection

AP Biology

Spring 2011

Directional selection

Directional Selection

  • Directional Selection: shifts allele frequencies in a consistent direction (selection in the direction of a particular range of phenotypes)

  • May be in response to environmental pressures or occur as a new mutation appears and is adaptive

Directional selection examples

Directional Selection Examples

  • Read in the textbook of a few examples of directional selection

Response to predation

Response to Predation

  • The peppered moth

    • Populations of peppered moth show classic directional selection where the moth colouration is in direct response to their environment

    • Light moths are camouflaged on lichen-covered tree trunks, and dark moths are camouflaged on soot-covered tree trunks

Response to predation1

Response to Predation

  • The peppered moth

    • H. B. Kettlewell demonstrated experimentally that moths with a certain colour phenotype would be most abundant depending upon the pollution accumulating on the tree trunks

    • When population controls decreased the soot on trees, selection shifted to favour light-coloured moths

Response to predation2

Response to Predation

  • Pocket Mice

    • The larger population of rock pocket mice in the Arizona desert survives well because of its genetically-determined lighter fur colour that blends in with the granite

    • Predator birds cannot spot them easily

Response to predation3

Response to Predation

  • Pocket Mice

    • A smaller population of mice has darker coats, which allow them to blend in with the dark basalt (from lava) and avoid being seen by predators

    • Night-flying predatory birds are the selecting agents for the dark fur

Response to predation4

Response to Predation

  • Resistance to Antibiotics

    • Antibiotics are drugs that have proven very effective in treating bacterial-induced diseases

    • Some antibiotics, like streptomycin, affect the formation of bacterial cell walls

Response to predation5

Response to Predation

  • Resistance to Antibiotics

    • Although bacteria do not reproduce sexually, some strains reproduce rapidly

    • Each generation has the potential to contain a beneficial mutation

    • Overuse of antibiotics has led to the directional selection of resistant strains that are no longer susceptible to the drug

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