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Genetics and Primary Care. Familial Cancer Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Case 1: Ruth. Ruth, a 35 year old Jewish woman, comes for a family planning visit. You inquire about family health history and find out the following information:

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Familial cancer risk assessment breast and ovarian cancer l.jpg

Genetics and Primary Care

Familial Cancer Risk Assessment:

Breast and Ovarian Cancer


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Case 1: Ruth

Ruth, a 35 year old Jewish woman, comes for a family planning visit. You inquire about family health history and find out the following information:

  • Maternal family history is negative for cancer

  • Paternal family history is significant for:

    • Paternal aunt with ovarian cancer age at 55

    • Paternal grandmother with breast cancer age 42

      Ruth has no other risk factorsor pertinent family history


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Case 2: Alison

Alison is a 40 year old Caucasian (non-Jewish) patient who asks you for information about the “breast cancer gene test”. She states she wants this test.

You ask about her family history:

  • Mother with breast cancer - age 58

  • Maternal aunt with breast cancer – age 65

  • Paternal grandmother with breast cancer – age 79

    Alison has no other risk factors for breast cancer

    She feels that with her family history, breast cancer is inevitable


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Outline

  • Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

  • Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer

  • Cancer family history – a primary tool

  • Screening for hereditary breast/ovarian CA in the primary care setting

  • When and how to refer patients for genetic services


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Cancer Etiology:

  • ~5-10% of cases have a strong hereditary component

  • ~15-20% are “familial”/multifactorial

  • ~70-75% are thought to be sporadic


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Hereditary Breast/Ovarian CA

  • Occurs in multiple generations

  • Younger ages of onset (often <50)

  • Bilateral cancer or multiple primaries common

  • Family history of unique tumor combinations

    • e.g. sarcoma, breast, brain in same family

    • e.g. male breast cancer, ovarian/breast

    • e.g. breast, thyroid, uterine cancer


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Hereditary Breast and Ovarian CA (HBOC)

  • 5-10% of all cases of breast and ovarian cancer

  • About 70 to 85% of HBOC cases are caused by mutations in either the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene

  • Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations is available to women with family history meeting “hereditary breast cancer” criteria


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Each cell has two copies of BRCA1 and BRCA2

BRCA2

BRCA1


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BRCA1/2 Mutation Incidence

  • 1 in 800 women in the general population

  • 5-10% of all women with breast CA

  • ~18% of women with breast CA <50 and one close relative with breast CA <50

  • 2% of all women of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry


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BRCA1/2 Mutations: Cancer Risks

BRCA1BRCA2

  • Breast cancer to age 8050-85%50-85%

  • Ovarian cancer to age 8020-60%up to 27%

  • Male breast cancerSlight incr.~6%

  • Prostate cancerSlight incr. Slight incr.

  • Pancreatic cancerNo incr.1.5-5%

  • MelanomaNo incr.Slight incr.

    Daly MD: NCCN 2002 genetic/familial high-risk assessment clinical practice guidelines in oncology.


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Risk-Based ManagementHigh/Genetic Risk:

  • BSE monthly starting at age 18

  • CBE once or twice a year starting age 25

  • Mammogram once a year starting at age 25

  • Ovarian surveillance if BRCA1 or 2 mutation positive or family history of ovarian cancer

    • Pelvic exam, trans-vaginal ultrasound, +/- CA-125 once or twice a year; age 25-35

  • Options: Chemoprevention or prophylactic surgery


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Treatment Options: BRCA1/2 Carriers

  • Chemoprevention

    • Tamoxifen reduces risk in BRCA2 carriers, (still questionable in BRCA1 carriers)

  • Prophylactic bilateral mastectomy

    • ~90% reduction in breast CA risk

  • Prophylactic bilateral oophorectomy

    • ~up to 95% reduction in ovarian CA risk

    • ~50% reduction in breast CA risk


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Other Hereditary Breast Cancer Syndromes

  • Cowden Syndrome – <1% of all BrCA

    • Facial/buccal lesions, GI hamartomas

    • Thyroid, endometrial lesions or CA, macrocephaly

  • Li-Fraumeni– <1% of all BrCA

    • Early-onset sarcoma, leukemia, brain CA

    • Adrenocortical CA, others

  • Peutz-Jeghers- <1% of all BrCA

    • Childhood GI hamartomas, GI CA

    • Pigmentation of lips, buccal mucosa, hands/feet


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Cancer Genetic Counseling

  • Full pedigree analysis and risk assessment

  • Discussion of:

    • Personal risks of cancer based on family history

    • Risks of genetic syndrome in the family

    • Appropriate genetic testing and chances of mutation

    • Full informed consent prior to genetic testing

    • Personalized, risk-based screening and prevention options

    • Support resources


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Ethical Issues: Genetic Testing

  • Confidentiality/Privacy

    • Preserve other family members’ confidentiality when documenting family history

  • Potential insurance, employment, social discrimination

  • Sharing information with at-risk relatives

    • What if client refuses?

    • Positive results on one family member suggest risk in others without their consent


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BRCA1/2 and Other Genetic Testing

  • Affected family member should be tested first, when possible

    • If no mutation found (or “uncertain variant”): testing others not warranted

    • If mutation identified, unaffected relatives can be offered testing for that specific mutation - after genetic counseling and informed consent


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What can YOU do?


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Goal: ClassificationWho needs what?

Assessment

Risk Classification

Intervention

Standard prevention

recommendations

Average

Moderate

(“Familial”)

Personalized prevention

recommendations

Family Hx

Referral for genetic evaluation

with personalized prevention

recommendations

High/Genetic


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Screening for “Familial Cancer”

  • Help your clients collect appropriate Family History Details:

    • Type of primary cancer(s) in each relative

    • Age of disease onset in each relative

    • Cancer status in 1stand 2nd degree relatives

    • Cancer status in both sides of the family

    • Ethnic background on both sides

    • Other medical findings – benign tumors, etc.


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Gail Model

  • Calculates 5 yr and lifetime risk (to 90 yrs) of breast cancer based on multiple criteria

  • Limitations: age of onset, 2nd degree relatives, paternal history, ovarian cancer, ethnicity not included in risk analysis

  • http://bcra.nci.nih.gov/brc/start.htm

  • Gail MH: J Natl Cancer Inst (1989); 81; 24; 1979-1886.


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Claus Model

  • Calculates risk of breast CA to age 80 based on:

    • Age of onset of breast cancer in 1st and 2nd degree relatives, including paternal

  • Limitations:

    • May underestimate risk in families with 3 or more affected members; ethnicity not included

    • Claus EB et al. Cancer 73:643-651 (1994)


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Myriad Risk Tables

  • Identifies the chance of detecting a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in women with a family history of early-onset breast and/or breast and ovarian cancer

    • Limitations: breast cancer>50 yrs not included; clinical data not validated

    • www.myriad.com

  • Genetics referral appropriate for women with significant risk of mutation


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Breast/Ovarian Cancer Risk Assessment

  • Likelihood of developing breast cancer:

    • Gail model

    • Claus model

  • Likelihood of having a BRCA1 or 2 mutation

    • Myriad risk tables

    • BRCAPRO, Couch, Shattuck-Eidens, CAGene

  • Likelihood of other breast cancer syndrome

    • Pedigree analysis


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Case 1: Ruth

Ruth, a 35 year old Jewish woman, comes for a family planning visit. You inquire about family health history and find out the following information:

  • Maternal family history is negative for cancer

  • Paternal family history is significant for:

    • Paternal aunt with ovarian cancer age at 55

    • Paternal grandmother with breast cancer age 42

      Ruth has no other risk factors or pertinent family history. Her first menses was at age 12.


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Case 1: Pedigree

Polish Jewish

Russian Jewish

Dx 42

82 yrs

60

58

Dx 55

d. 56

Key

-Breast CA

Ruth

35

28

37

-Ovarian CA


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Case 1: Risk Assessment

  • Gail Model:

    • 0.3% five year risk. 11.3% lifetime risk

  • Claus Model:

    • No category for 1 breast CA, 1 ovarian CA in second degree relatives

    • Lifetime risk of 10.4% based on affected paternal grandmother

  • Limitations in each model


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Case 1: BRCA1/2 Risks

  • Myriad Table:

    • 28.6% risk of mutation in patient

    • 41.3% risk of mutation in grandmother

  • Referral for Cancer Genetic Counseling is appropriate

    • For cancer risk assessment and discussion of genetic testing for BRCA1/2


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Consider cancer genetic counseling referral if:

  • Myriad table indicates significant risk for BRCA1/2 mutation

  • Family medical history is suspicious for a hereditary cancer syndrome

  • Client has extreme anxiety about the cancer family history

  • Client has questions beyond the scope of your practice


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“High/Genetic Risk” Indications for referral

  • Two 1st degree, or one 1st and one 2nd degree relative in the same lineage with breast cancer <50 yrs

  • 3 or more family members (1st or 2nd degree) with breast cancer, same lineage, any age

  • Male with breast CA + breast or ovarian CA in a relative


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“High/Genetic Risk” Indications for referral (cont.)

  • Patient or 1st degree relative with breast CA <40 yrs, with or without family history

  • Two or more cases of ovarian CA, same lineage

  • Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry and any family history of breast <50 or ovarian cancer, any age

  • Both breast and ovarian CA, same lineage


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Case 2: Alison

Alison is a 40 year old Caucasian (non-Jewish) patient who asks you for information about the “breast cancer gene test”. She states she wants this test.

You ask her about her family history:

  • Mother with breast cancer - age 58

  • Maternal aunt with breast cancer – age 65

  • Paternal grandmother with breast cancer – age 79

    Alison has no other risk factors for breast cancer. Menses began at age 11. 1st child at age 25.

    She feels that with her family history, breast cancer is inevitable


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Case 2: Pedigree

Swedish / Finnish

Caucasian mix

Dx 79

d.81

Dx 58

65 yr

Dx 65

71 yr

Key:

-Breast CA

Alison

40 yr

15 yr


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Case 2: Risk Assessment

  • Gail Model:

    • 5 year risk of 1.2% / lifetime risk of 20.4%

  • Claus Model:

    • Lifetime risk of 18.8%

  • Myriad table:

    • 3.4% risk of BRCA1/2 mutation using family history

  • Pedigree analysis:

    • no indications of other breast cancer syndromes

  • Patient concerns


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“Moderate/Familial” Risk

  • Clustering of cancer cases seen in the family

  • Ages of onset not strikingly young

  • Risks for first degree relatives increased

    • Risk depends on number of family members affected, how closely related, ages of onset

  • Multiple low-power genes may play a role and interact with environmental triggers


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Case 2: Pedigree

Swedish / Finnish

Caucasian mix

Dx 79

d.81

Dx 58

65 yr

Dx 65

71 yr

Key:

Alison

40 yr

-Breast CA


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Risk Based ManagementModerate/Familial:

  • BSE monthly; CBE once or twice a year

  • Mammogram once a year starting at 35 or 5-10 yrs prior to earliest case of breast cancer

    • Immediate biopsy of any suspicious findings

  • Option: Chemoprevention

  • Lifestyle changes


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Case 2: Assessment

  • Patient is in “Moderate/Familial” risk category

  • Can begin breast cancer screening by age 35

  • Counseling issues:

    • Low risk for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation

    • Screening and preventive strategies

    • Psychosocial – perceived risk, fears

    • Support resources

    • Referral to genetics if patient anxiety remains high or other questions arise


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Preventive lifestyle measures

  • Increase exercise – 30 min. or more most days

  • Weight control

  • Diet ?? (results inconclusive):

    • Less saturated, animal and trans fat, more fish

    • Less refined flour, sugar

    • More fruits/vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts

    • More fiber, antioxidant supplements?? (data limited)

  • Alcohol: less than 1-2 drinks/day

  • Breast feeding


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Oregon Genetics Providers

  • Portland

    • Oregon Health & Science University

    • Legacy Health Care

    • Northwest Perinatal Services

    • Kaiser-Permanente

  • Eugene

    • Center for Genetics & Maternal Fetal Medicine

  • Bend

    • Genetic Counseling of Central Oregon (cancer only)


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Genetic Services Information

  • Consult “Genetic Services contact list”

  • Phone consultations available:

    • OHSU Genetics Consultation Line 503-494-5516

  • Refer patients by phone, fax, mail, or patient self-referral

  • ‘Indications For Referral’ in resource packet

    • Preconception/prenatal

    • Pediatric

    • Adolescent/Adult


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Resource Materials

  • Pedigree symbols and template

  • Patient pamphlets:

    • ‘Do You Have Cancer in Your Family?’

    • ‘Genetic Testing: A Fact Sheet’

  • Web-based cancer genetics resource list

  • Resource materials at www.healthoregon.org/genetics

  • Genetics tutorials on www.modimes.org


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