利用行動可攜式 EDXRF 篩選符合 RoHS 規範. as per IEC-ACEA* Procedures for the Determination of Levels of Regulated Substances in Electrotechnical Products (Version 2005-06-24) *: International Electrotechnical Commission – Advisory Committee on Environmental Aspects. Ken Smith Innov-X Systems, Inc.
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利用行動可攜式 EDXRF篩選符合RoHS 規範
as per IEC-ACEA* Procedures for the Determination of Levels of Regulated Substances in Electrotechnical Products
*: International Electrotechnical Commission – Advisory Committee on Environmental Aspects
Innov-X Systems, Inc.
Woburn, MA USA
每個人 都可檢測任何物品 隨時隋地
Searching for WMD’s 廢棄物資源的搜尋
Conserving Art Treasures保存藝術品及貴重物品
Securing Borders 邊界安全應用
Tube (source) X-rays interact with sample producing fluorescent x-rays. X-ray管(來源)會使樣品產生反射螢光x-rays
X-rays emissions from excited elements in the sample are captured by a detector and converted into an energy spectrum.受激的樣品會產生X-rays射線被檢測器給截取轉換成為能量圖譜
Computer software calculates chemistry results based on spectral analysis.電腦軟體利用能量圖譜將其轉換成化學成份
EU ... PACRIM
EPA … CALIFORNIA
鉛，六價鉻，汞、 溴(耐燃劑( PBB/PBDE )的含量須小於0.1%
HP, Intel, IBM, Microsoft, Samsung, Motorola, Apple, Sony, GE, Phillips, Toshiba, Dell, Mitsubishi.
(1): XRF testing does not distinguish Cr6+ from total Cr, but does identify total Cr. If Cr is found by XRF at inconclusive or failing levels, verification testing should be performed.
(2): XRF testing does not identify PBB or PBDE, but does identify total Br. If Br is found by XRF at inconclusive or failing levels, verification testing should be performed.
P=Pass, F=Fail, Inc=Inconclusive顯示P為通過，F為未通過，Inc為未確定
Non-Desuctive RoHS/WEEE Screening for Polymer & Metalic Materials
(Br not in metallic materials)
Br ( PBB/PBDE):
Cr 6+ (Metals only) :
ISO 3613 adaptation tests or EPA3060A7196A Colorimetric Methods
ICP-AES, ICP-MS, CV-AAS or AFS
ICP-AES, AAS or ICP-MS
(a): If Cr is detected at inconclusive or failing levels, a verification test for Cr6+ should be performed.
(b): If Br is detected at inconclusive or failing levels, a verification test for PBB or PBDE should be performed.
#1. Handheld (HH):手提式
Homogeneous Samples 均勻材質的樣品
Quantitative Analysis (IEC Table 6.2)定量分析
Qualitative Screening Methods利用量化篩選的方式
IEC Guidelines Definition for Homogeneous:
The real world of samples is not homogenous現實世界無均勻材質的樣品
An IC consisting of multiple components: wafer, metal coating, plastic substrate, etc.
Circuit board 電路板
Cable if it is copper wire with rubber insulation. Must separate insulation to make homogeneous. 纜線是由銅線及橡塑絕緣層組成。必須將其分開成同材質
Surface mount resistor: Internally is ceramic, plastic, and 85% lead solder (which is exempt currently). 表面鍍層：內部是陶磁，塑膠，及85%為焊接物(目前為免除條款)。
(typically 100% Cr)
For non-uniform samples, it is nearly impossible to get quantitative results:對非相同的樣品，得到相同的定量結果是不大可能的
But you can screen effectively! 但是你可以有效率的篩選
Contract manufacturer using surface mount resistors.
Note: See next slide for Br
Bromine Protocol: 溴的檢測方法
Note: XRF measures elemental Br. RoHS regulates poly-brominated diphenyl ethers. If XRF test < 300 ppm, then any molecular form of PBDE is < 1,000 ppm, thus a PASS.
(typically 100% Cr)
(typically 100% Cr)
Solder layer (t)
Comparison of XRF Results with Assayed Values Containing Pb, 120 sec
Comparison of XRF Results with Assayed Values Containing Cd, 120 sec
Comparison of XRF Results with Assayed Values Containing Hg, 120 sec msmt.
R2 = 0.996
Comparison of XRF Results with Assayed Values Containing Br, 120 sec msmt.
R2 = 0.998
(scales as square root)以平方根做為計算方法
Effect of high bromine: Reduced Pb sensitivity. 高溴的影響：對鉛的靈敏度低
XRF “Bromine Alert”: Senses high Br, automatically uses lead L-alpha line for improved sensitivity XRF會自動修正其靈敏度