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Female Genital Mutilation PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Female Genital Mutilation. Julie Baumgart Molly Larsen Erin Morcomb. What is Female Genital Mutilation?. Removal of all or part of…. Clitoris Clitoral Hood Labia Minora Labia Majora Sewing together of outer labia majora to create a dime or nickel-sized vaginal opening. Before and After .

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Female Genital Mutilation

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Female Genital Mutilation

Julie Baumgart

Molly Larsen

Erin Morcomb

What is Female Genital Mutilation?

Removal of all or part of….

  • Clitoris

  • Clitoral Hood

  • Labia Minora

  • Labia Majora

  • Sewing together of outer labia majora to create a dime or nickel-sized vaginal opening

Before and After

Types of FGM

  • Type 1 (Clitoridectomy)

    -The removal of all or part of the clitoris

  • Type 2 (Excision)

    -Removal of all of part of the labia minora

  • Type 3 (Infibulation/Pharaonic)

    -Two sides of the vulva are sewed together

    except for a small opening to permit the

    passage of urine and menstrual blood

History of Female Genital Mutilation


  • Developed in Islamic countries


  • Sexuality diminished; less promiscuous

  • Cure insanity, epilepsy, catalepsy, hysteria

  • Decreased transmission of HIV/AIDS

  • Proof of virginity, dignity, fertility

  • Spiritual and physical threat to baby in utero or to husband during sexual intercourse

  • Makes young girls less masculine

Immediate Health Risks of FGM

  • Kidney Infection

  • Anemia

  • Pubic cysts/abcesses

  • Very painful menses

  • Keloid formation

  • Urine retention

  • Dehydration

  • Fever

  • Gangrene

  • Genital Infection

  • Hemorrhaging

  • Death

  • Septicema

  • Tetanus

  • Urinary Tract Infection

Immediate FGM-Related Complications in Four Kenyan Districts

Long-term Health Risks of FGM

  • Infertility

  • Psychological


  • Limited

    choice of


  • Incontinence

  • Urethral & Vaginal Stenosis

  • Fistula

  • Birth Complications

  • Dispareunia

Chronic FGM-Related Complications Encountered by Health Providers in Kenya

Social Implications

  • Unlikely that they will ever marry

    In Sudan…

  • 10% of women believed that having the procedure done would increase their likelihood of finding a husband

  • 7.8% of men preferred a non-circumcised life partner

Personal Implications of Refusal of FGM

  • Look at labia majora, clitoris and labia minora as male sexual organs

  • View operation as ridding women of small penis and they are then a true woman

Religious Implications of Refusal of FGM

  • Majority believe that it is female responsibility to have it done to please their husband

  • Tightening done so that sex is more pleasureable for men (“wifely duty”)

  • Chastity

Reasons for Supporting FGM in Egypt, Mali, Central African Republic, and Eritrea

Relevance in Countries Outside of Africa

  • Certain groups support the continuation of this practice for their own economic purposes

    Illegal in…

  • Great Britain

  • France

  • Germany

  • Sweden

Relevance of FGM in the USA

  • Immigration

  • Sex in the media-

    *Cosmetic Surgery (Dr. 90210)

Criminalizing FGM in the USA

What are we doing to protect women and children from FGM?

  • Somali Debate

  • Swedish law

What do men think and feel about this practice being done to women?

  • Some men enjoy the tightening from infibulation

  • Others are disgusted by the thought of forcible sex

  • Some men prefer to keep the tradition

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