Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community
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Physics for All: Ethnicity , Gender, and the Physics Community. Featuring results from the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics Reported by Keith Clay of GRCC. What do physicists look like?. What do physicists look like?. What do physicists look like?.

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Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community

Physics for All: Ethnicity, Gender, and the Physics Community

Featuring results from the Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics

Reported by Keith Clay of GRCC


What do physicists look like

What do physicists look like?


What do physicists look like1

What do physicists look like?


What do physicists look like2

What do physicists look like?


What do physicists look like3

don’t

What do physicists look like?

Is this true?

Is it a problem?


What do physicists look like4

What do physicists look like?


What do physicists look like5

What do physicists look like?


What do physicists look like6

What do physicists look like?


What do physicists look like7

What do physicists look like?


Reasons to celebrate

Reasons to celebrate

Sylvester James “Jim” Gates is a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Maryland. He was the first to extend the concept of Super-symmetry into more than two dimensions. He currently serves on the National Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.

Sylvester James GatesUniversity of Maryland


Reasons to celebrate1

Reasons to celebrate

“Professor Hau's group recently reduced the light speed to 17 meters per second (the speed of a racing bicycle) - and ultimately completely stopped a light pulse - by optically inducing a quantum interference in a Bose–Einstein condensate.”

Harvard website, 2007

LeneHau, Harvard University


Reasons to celebrate2

Reasons to celebrate

“Juan Martín Maldacena is a theoretical physicist. Among his many discoveries, the most famous one is the most reliable realization of the holographic principle - namely the AdS/CFT correspondence, the conjecture about the equivalence of string theory on Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, and a conformal field theory defined on the boundary of the AdS space.”

Wikipedia

Juan MaldacenaPrinceton University


Reasons to celebrate3

Reasons to celebrate

“Vera Rubin is an American astronomer who pioneered work on galaxy rotation rates. She uncovered the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves.”

Wikipedia

“Vera Rubin is the American astronomer who established the presence of dark matter in galaxies.”

American Museum of Natural History

Vera Rubin, UCLA


Reasons to celebrate4

Reasons to celebrate

TRANSLATION:

Very Rubin discovered Dark Matter

So where is her Nobel Prize?

Vera Rubin, UCLA


Reasons to celebrate5

Reasons to celebrate

TRANSLATION:

Very Rubin discovered Dark Matter

So where is her Nobel Prize?


Reasons to celebrate6

Reasons to celebrate???

In 2011, three men shared the Nobel Prize for the discovery of Dark Energy.

“Only the Nobel Committee really knows why Vera Rubin has been passed over for so long…”

ThePhysicsBuzz, 2011


Reasons to celebrate7

Reasons to celebrate???

NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS IN PHYSICS

193

2


Reasons to celebrate8

Reasons to celebrate???

NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS IN PHYSICS

194

1


The reality of life in physics

The reality of life in Physics:

GENDER: UNIVERSITY PHYSICS PROFESSORS


The reality of life in physics1

The reality of life in Physics:

ETHNICITY: BACHELOR’S DEGREES IN PHYSICS


Disclaimers

DISCLAIMERS

  • I am a white male.

  • I am not a statistician.

  • I did not collect any of the following data.

  • I have served as an advisor to the Statistical Research Council of the American Institute of Physics.

  • Statistics tell us about correlations.

  • Statistics can only hint at causes.


Gender part one do women have less aptitude

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?

In a speech given in 2005…Harvard President Lawrence Summers:

Perhaps differences in women’s performance in math and science could be due to a "different availability of aptitude at the high end."

(paraphrased: the exact quote is not available)


Gender part one do women have less aptitude1

Jan. 2005:Summers makes bizarre statement!

The next day:Time, Newsweek, NYT, Washington Post, and NPR descend on AIP

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?

Consider the case of Rachel Ivie

  • Becomes Experimental Sociologist.

  • Emphasizes statistical research.

  • Takes a job with SRC at AIP.

  • Dec. 2004:Authors study on women in physics.

  • Prepares for long winter’s nap.


Gender part one do women have less aptitude2

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?


Gender part one do women have less aptitude3

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?


Gender part one do women have less aptitude4

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?

Physics is “math intensive.”

Physics is not math.

GRE Physics scores are more closely correlated with SAT Verbal scores than they are with SAT Math scores


Gender part one do women have less aptitude5

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?

GRE Physics scores are more closely correlated with SAT Verbal scores than they are with SAT Math scores

So explain this...


Gender part one do women have less aptitude6

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?

  • Our heroes:

Rachel Ivie

Susan White

Statistical researchers at the American Institute of Physics


Gender part one do women have less aptitude7

GENDER: Part OneDo women have less aptitude?

  • The best conclusion of the [email protected]..

  • … based on all available data…

  • … after months of investigation…

“no”


Gender part two are women less successful

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?

  • Do women fail or drop-out more than men?

  • Is there conscious discrimination?

  • Is there unconscious discrimination?

  • … and by whom?

  • Is discrimination statistically visible?

  • Are women choosing other careers?

  • Are women “less ambitious”?

  • What about those Nobel Prizes?


Gender part two are women less successful1

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?

“Could it be that, even as policy makers have been supporting efforts to increase the representation of women in physics and other science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, those judging the merits of scientific work have been guilty of unconscious bias? The dearth of women winning the top prize in physics suggests this may be the case.”


Gender part two are women less successful2

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?

What about more “ordinary” folk?


Gender part two are women less successful3

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?


Gender part two are women less successful4

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?

Between 1987 and 1997 the proportion of girls in high school physics classes increased from 40 percent to 47 percent, where it has remained fairly consistently since then. However, in AP classes, girls make up only 41 percent in Physics B and 32 percent of the Physics C classroom.

AIP SRC Report, July 2011


Gender part two are women less successful5

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?


Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community

Percent of Bachelor’s Degrees Earned by Women in Selected Fields, 1966-2001.


Gender part two are women less successful6

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?


Gender part two are women less successful7

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?


Gender part two are women less successful8

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?

Small numbers of women in university physics departments do not provide statistically significant evidence of hiring bias due to conscious discrimination against women.

Rachel Ivie and Susan White, 2013

“We believe the issue of gender equity in physics is complex and nuanced. It is unwise to try to simplify it by examining whether or not a department has a woman among its faculty.”

Rachel Ivie, 2013


Gender part two do women discriminate against themselves

GENDER: Part TwoDo women discriminate against themselves?

Female college students “demonstrated negativity toward math and science …Group identity (self = female), and gender stereotypes (math = male) were related to attitudes and identification with mathematics. Strong ... “math = male” stereotypes corresponded with … negative … math attitudes for women but more positive attitudes for men. Associating the self with female and math with male made it difficult for … women who had selected math-intensive majors, to associate math with the self.”

Brian A. Nosek and Mahzarin R. Banaji, Yale

Anthony Greenwald, UW

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2002


Gender part two are women less successful9

GENDER: Part TwoAre women less successful?

They have fewer numbers, but…

  • On average they succeed (about) as often

  • All trends are positive (except comp. sci.)

  • “Upper levels” mirror earlier “lower levels”

  • The “Leaky Pipeline” doesn’t leak much

  • We’re now at 46% in high school


Ethnicity yes there is an achievement gap

ETHNICITY: Yes, there is an achievement gap

Preamble:

  • Using self-identified ethnic classifications…

    Observations on math and science:

  • Average performance of Caucasian and Asian Americans is at one level.

  • Average performance of African and Latino Americans is at another.


Ethnicity yes there is an achievement gap1

ETHNICITY: Yes, there is an achievement gap

Education Week, 2005


Ethnicity yes there is an achievement gap2

ETHNICITY: Yes, there is an achievement gap

The Atlantic, 2011


Ethnicity yes there is an achievement gap3

ETHNICITY: Yes, there is an achievement gap

Bachelor’s Degrees Awarded by Field and Race, Class of 2001 (NSF & AIP)


Ethnicity yes there is an achievement gap4

ETHNICITY: Yes, there is an achievement gap

Huge complication: INCOME

INCOME


Ethnicity yes there is an achievement gap5

ETHNICITY: Yes, there is an achievement gap

Huge complication: FAMILY


Ethnicity do equal skills lead to equal success

ETHNICITY:Do equal skills lead to equal success?

  • Key question:

    If students come to college equally prepared, are they equally likely to succeed?


Ethnicity how can we judge equal skills

ETHNICITY:How can we judge equal skills?

Likelihood of Earning a Bachelor’s Degree vs.

Mathematics Scores in Senior Year of H.S.

Standardized Math % Earning a Bachelor’s Scores Test, (decile) within the next 8 years

=============== ===============

Highest79

9th 63

8th 47

7th 40

6th 32

Lower 8

Average 32


Obvious question why are latinos less successful than african americans

Obvious question: why are Latinos less successful than African-Americans?

  • Easier question to answer:

    What helps African-Americans to succeed?


Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community

African American Bachelor’s in Physics

Universities that awarded the largest number of bachelor’s over last five years

African American

5-Year Totals

57Xavier University (LA)

40Lincoln University (PA)

39Southern University A&M (LA)

25Alabama Agricultural & Mechanical University (AL)

22Dillard University (LA)

22Grambling State University (LA)

22Hampton University (VA)

20Benedict College (SC)

19Jackson State University (MS)

19Tuskegee University (AL)

18Norfolk State University (VA)

17Morehouse University (GA)

320 of 788Total Number of African American physics bachelor’s from all

degree granting departments: 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000 & 2001

Source: AIP Statistical Research Center compiled from data collected by NCES


Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community

African American Bachelor’s in Physics

Universities that awarded the largest number of bachelor’s over last five years


Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community

204 of 642


Physics for all ethnicity gender and the physics community

204 of 642


What inspires white and asian american students who succeed in physics

What inspires White and Asian-American students who succeed in physics?

When asked for top 3 sources of inspiration…

  • Essentially all of them cite a physics teacher

  • That physics teacher was almost certainly white or Asian.


What inspires african americans who succeed in physics

What inspires African-Americans who succeed in physics?

When asked for top 3 sources of inspiration…

  • 40% refer to an African-American teacher of a subject other than physics

  • 20% cite inspiration from a white teacher

  • Very few cite a white physics teacher.

    Even at HBCU’s, most never seean African American physics teacher.


Pseudo conclusion

Pseudo-Conclusion

  • There are no definite conclusions.

  • These studies are ongoing.

  • AIP funding currently emphasizes other studies so extension of these studies might not happen soon.


And what about community college

And what about Community College?


And what about green river

And what about Green River?

Outstanding Physics Students 2012


And what about green river1

And what about Green River?

OUTSTANDING PHYSICS STUDENTS 2012 AND 2013

6

7


And what about green river2

And what about Green River?

OUTSTANDING PHYSICS STUDENTS 2012 AND 2013

2

11


And what about green river3

And what about Green River?

Outstanding Physics Students 2012


And what about green river4

And what about Green River?

  • According to the American Association of Physics Teachers 2005 report, SPIN-UP TYC: Best Practices of Physics Programs

    “GRCC has strong minority and female student enrollments in all of its physics courses… GRCC has very high retention rates… students have performed extremely well on national assessment.”

  • We have little idea why, except…

    “The use of inquiry methods in all physics classes has led to greater student retention and understanding.”


Reasons to celebrate9

Reasons to celebrate


Reasons to celebrate10

Reasons to celebrate

Ellen Ochoa is a Latina-American born in Los Angeles. She has a bachelor’s in physics from San Diego State University and a PhD in engineering from Stanford. She was a researcher at Sandia National Labs before becoming an astronaut in 1991. She served as shuttle mission specialist, flight engineer, and commander. In 2013 she became the director of NASA Johnson Space Flight Center.

Dr. Ellen Ochoa

Director Johnson Space Flight Center


Reasons to celebrate11

Reasons to celebrate

“What everyone in the astronaut corps shares in common is not gender or ethnic background, but motivation, perseverance, and desire - the desire to participate in a voyage of discovery.”

Dr. Ellen Ochoa

Ellen Ochoa Middle School

Pasco, Washington


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