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Unit Operations Lecture 20. 7 Nov 2012. McCabe-Thiele – AZ diagrams. Ethanol – Water Binary (1.013 bar):. Overview. Review rigorous methods / RADFRAC Multicomponent systems: Residue curves DSTWU / RADFRAC Rules of thumb Complex (Enhanced) distillation Column internals

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Unit Operations

Lecture 20

7 Nov 2012


McCabe-Thiele – AZ diagrams

Ethanol – Water Binary (1.013 bar):


Overview

  • Review rigorous methods / RADFRAC

  • Multicomponent systems:

    • Residue curves

    • DSTWU / RADFRAC

    • Rules of thumb

  • Complex (Enhanced) distillation

  • Column internals

  • Batch distillation


Azeotropic Distillation

Perry’s 8th ed.


AzeotropicDistillation

  • Water with (binary system at atmospheric P):

  • methanol - no azeotrope

  • ethanol - azeotrope

  • propanol - azeotrope

  • In-class exercise:

  • using Aspen Plus, explore if we can use distillation to separate the binary mixture of water and n-butanol.


Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation

VLLE (NRTL)


Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation

Perry’s 8th ed.



Complex Multicomponent Systems




Complex or Enhanced Distillation

  • Extractive Distillation

    • Higher boiling solvent

    • Enters near top of column

    • Interacts with other components to affect volatility or activity coefficients

  • Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation

    • Add entrainer that forms min/max boiling point AZ w/ 1 or more of feed compds

    • Added near top or bottom, depending upon if AZ is min or max BP

  • Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation

    • Add entrainer to form min BP heterogeneous azeotrope (EtOH-H2O + benzene)

  • Pressure – Swing Distillation

    • For pressure sensitive azeotropes and distillation boundaries

  • Salt Distillation

    • Alter relative volatilities of feed compds by dissolving a soluble ionic salt into the reflux

  • Steam Distillation

    • Steam is added to reduce temperature of distilling organic mixture

  • Reactive Distillation

    • add reactant &/or catalyst to cause a reversible/selective reaction with one of the feed components

    • Reaction and distillation occur in same vessel


Reactive Distillation

  • Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol to ethyl acetate and water




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