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Dr. Subra Ganesan. Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Associate Director Product Development and Manufacturing Center Director Real time DSP Systems Lab Oakland University. October 20, 2005 at SECS. Editor International Journal of Agile Manufacturing ( IJAM)

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Dr subra ganesan
Dr. Subra Ganesan

  • Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering

  • Associate Director Product Development and Manufacturing Center

  • Director Real time DSP Systems Lab

  • Oakland University

October 20, 2005 at SECS


Editor International Journal of Agile Manufacturing

( IJAM)

Council member of International Society of

Productivity Enhancement ( ISPE)

General Chair of :

Concurrent Engineering Conference 1997

IEEE IT conference 2001

Workshop on FPGA- 2002

IEEE Embedded system workshop- Sept 2003

International conference ICSIT, Algiers, July 2005

Chrysler summer intern in Manufacturing group1996, 97, 2005.

Worked on Plant Simulation using Simulation software

CATA report generation from Perceptron Vision based controller. Web based end of line test-data analyzer.


Research Areas

* Information Technology application for

Real time Manufacturing

* Real time Embedded system:

DSP based embedded applications

Finger Print identification

Watermarking

MEMS gages for Structure health analysis

Tire pressure Monitoring

Embedded Software architecture

( Model Driven architecture for

Automotive applications


Real Time Vision based Automatic sorting of

Irregular shape product ( e.g. Fruits) by

Attributes like Size, color, surface defects

Example:

Use multiple CCD cameras, Process huge

Amount of image data, compute Area,

Axis, radius, coefficient of variation method etc.

Multiple DSP processors are used to execute in real time.



Real Time Embedded System

Real time Engine controller,

On-Board-Diagnostics

DSP based Embedded Systems

Wireless communication- Mobile IP

Collision Avoidance – side collision


Collision Avoidance Analysis for

Lane Changing and Merging

Calculate in real time with side radar sensors, the spacing which the vehicle should have to avoid collision during Lane changing.

Provide Warnings to the driver


Steering Wheel Angle

Vehicle Speed

Windshield wiper status

Radio status

Audio Warning (radio)

Visual Warning

Diagnostics

Side Radar (Left)

Side Radar (Right)

Video

Camera

Collision Avoidance

Electronic Control Unit

24Ghz

Rear Radar

System

77 GHz

Frontal

Radar

Anti-lock Braking

Electronic Control Unit

Data Logger

Electronic Control Unit

Powertrain

Electronic Control Unit

Power Steering

Electronic Control Unit

Figure Complete “high-end” collision-avoidance system


Design of an UML-Based Evolutionary

Architectural Prototype for an Embedded

DSP based system in Automotive

Applications

Venkat Alladi and Subra Ganesan

Dept. of Computer Science,

Oakland University, Rochester Hills – 48309

[email protected]


Model driven architecture
Model Driven Architecture

  • What is MDA ?

    • Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is an approach for building systems that are portable, interoperable, and reusable. This presentation will show how to create MDA for an engine controller system that is independent of the deploying platform.


What is uml
What is UML?

  • UML – Unified Modeling Language

    • Unique and simple way to communicate design with models that capture specifications (features, business rules, and special extensions)

    • Easily extensible

    • Standard industry practice

    • State, Class, Sequence, and Component diagrams


What is mda
What is MDA?

MDA is an approach for:

  • Specifying a system independent of its platform

  • Specifying platforms

  • Choosing a particular platform for a system

  • Transforming the system specification into the one for that particular system


What is mda1
What is MDA?

  • Key Terms

    • System

    • Model

    • Model Driven

    • Architecture

    • View Point

    • View

    • Application

    • Platform

    • Platform Independence


What is mda2
What is MDA

  • 3 Key Models of MDA

    • Computation Independent Model (CIM)

      • Represents Domain Model

    • Platform Independent Model (PIM)

      • Represents technology independent virtual machine

    • Platform Specific Model (PSM)

      • Represents a system for a specific platform


Mda and embedded systems
MDA and Embedded Systems

  • How can MDA be used for Embedded Systems?

    • Separation of concerns

    • Models independent of microcontroller platform

    • Domain driven reuse


Mda and embedded systems1
MDA and Embedded Systems

How does MDA work for an Engine Controller System?

- Following slides are going to demonstrate how MDA concepts can be applied to a Engine Controller system.


MDA is

An ideal way to design embedded software independent of the platform

An unique way to exchange information across systems

An industry standard provided OMG



Future electronic architecture

-

-

-

+

+

+

Future Electronic Architecture

  • INSTRUMENT PANEL

  • Instrument Cluster

  • Junction Block Module

  • HVAC Unit/Controller

  • Radio/ICU

  • Speakers

  • Switches

  • Lamps

  • Cigar Lighter/Power Outlets

  • Frontal Passive Restraints

  • SKIM

DISTRIBUTED

AMPLIFIERS

CD CHANGER

DVD

PLAYER

  • RADIO/ICU

  • CAN B / MOST Gateway

  • NAV

  • HVAC

MOST

Media Oriented

Systems Transport

-

+

-

+

NAV

PHONE

  • DOORS

  • Window Motors

  • Lock Motors

  • Switches (window, lock, mirror, memory, disarm, ajar)

  • Mirrors

  • Courtesy Lamps

  • SEATS

  • power

  • heat

  • memory

  • switches

  • OVERHEAD

  • EVIC

  • Courtesy/Dome Lighting

  • Sunroof

CAN B

Low Speed

Data Bus

  • INSTRUMENT CLUSTER

  • CAN B / CAN C Gateway

-

-

+

+

-

+

  • SHIFTER

  • Shift by Wire

  • AutoStick

  • Shift Interlock

  • Illumination

  • ENGINE

  • Engine Controller

  • Sensors

  • Injectors

  • TRANSMISSION

  • Transmission Controller

  • Transfer Case Controller

ABS

CAN C

High Speed

Data Bus

-

-

+

+

-

-

+

+



Project experience

Analysis

PC CAN Card

HS CAN

Log Database

PC CAN Card

LS CAN

Tests

IEEE or USB

I/O Bus

CANoe Environment

MS Windows

Test Target

PC Hardware

Setup for CAN Test, Validation and Verification

Project Experience

  • CAN Verification and Validation ..



Electronic Power Steering

Motor

Driver

Column Shaft

Torque Sensor

\

Motor

Worm Gear

Electro-mag

Clutch

Rack & Pinion Mechanism

Setup as in an Automobile


Figure 1

Electronic Control Unit

Monitoring

Of Motor

Current

Calculation of angular

Velocity

CPU

Basic

Control

Map

Angular Velocity Sensor

P

O

W

E

R

C

I

R

U

I

T

Vehicle Speed Sensor

(From speedometer)

EPS

Brushless

DC Motor

Calculation of vehicle

Speed

Engine Speed

Calculation of engine speed

Control Block


TMS320C240x Block Diagram

Program Bus

Program

Memory

Controller

Memory

Mapped

Registers

A(15-0)

D(15-0)

Data Bus

Data

Memory

Multiplier

Peripherals

(Event Mgr)

ALU/Shifters

Peripherals

(Non-Event Mgr)


Event Manager

GP Timers

Watchdog Timer

Non-EV Manager

Compare Unit

SPI

PWM Outputs

SCI

Dead-Band Logic

A/D Converter

Capture Unit

I /O Pins

Quadrature

Encoder

Pulse (QEP)

CAN

Peripherals

Data Bus


What is rfid
What is RFID

  • RFID is an area of automatic identification that has quietly been gaining momentum in recent years and is now being seen as a radical means of enhancing data handling processes, complimentary in many ways to other data capture technologies such bar coding.





Passive entry
Passive Entry

  • Imagine approaching your car with your arms full of groceries; keys somewhere in your pocket, you pull the handle and the vehicle automatically IDs you and unlocks the door.  Sound too good to be true?  This is just the first step on the way to a vehicle without a mechanical key.

  • The Keyless or Passive Entry system enables this convenience.  While Remote Keyless Entry systems require user action to unlock the vehicle, keyless access solutions provide a means for entry without the need for user interface. 


How it works
How It Works

  • Persons can have the keyfob in their pocket or purse, and when they come within 2 meters (about 6.5 feet) of the vehicle and simply pull the door handle, the device automatically identifies the driver and unlocks the door.

  • Product Descriptions

  • The 3D Analog Front End (3D AFE) is the first RFID Front  End IC handling all RF communication and enabling sophisticated micro-controller supported security tags. 


Encrypted remote keyless entry
Encrypted Remote Keyless Entry

  • Many vehicles are already equipped with a Remote Keyless Entry (RKE) that typically employs an encrypted transponder and controller chip (or an ASIC).  When pressing a RKE button, the controller generates a rolling code that is being transmitted to the vehicle. For immobilization, the vehicle sends a challenge to the transponder and verifies the response. Both systems are completely independent of each other an operate with different crypto-algorithms.  TI-RFid offers customized solutions that combine the transponder and RKE function in one chip.

    Product Description

  • The Crypto Entry Transponder (CET) provides the security of our anti-theft DST immobilizer technology with the convenience of an RKE device.



Osek os new challenges
OSEK OS: new challenges

  • OSEK is a preemptive operating system

    • offers the same challenges to the hard real-time system developer as any preemptive operating system

  • Critically, timing correctness is not part of the OSEK standard

    • Cannot apply the same timing analysis techniques used to guaranteeing timing behavior in cyclic systems

    • Must account for preemption and resource locking

    • Must account for the timing of the scheduler itself

    • difficult to test for correct timing behavior


Trying to test for meeting deadlines

longest observed

response time

deadline

best-case

worst-case

Trying to test for meeting deadlines

probability

responsetime


Trying to test for meeting deadlines1
Trying to test for meeting deadlines

  • Still possible to miss a deadline after passing tests

    • Quality in mass-production systems can be jeopardized due to run-time across large numbers of products

    • e.g. a typical automobile model has “flying hours” of billions of hours

  • Many systems cannot be tested to a sufficiently high confidence

    • e.g. automotive, aerospace

  • Need a predictable system where real-time performance can be determined before system is running

    • Even better if timing can be predicted early in development lifecycle


Realogy real time architect rta

Realogy Real Time Architect (RTA)

Guaranteed timing behaviour for OSEK OS based real-time systems


What is real time architect
What is Real Time Architect?

  • Real Time Architect (RTA) is a tool-suite and run-time environment for:

    • Implementing ECU functionality

    • Optimizing ECU resource requirements; and

    • Guaranteeing all performance constraints are always met

  • RTA directly supports the design, development and deployment of timing correct OSEK compatible embedded systems


What is realogy real time architect
What is Realogy Real-Time Architect?

Realogy Real-Time Architect (RTA)

RTArchitect GUI

[off-line OSEK OIL and real-time design tool]

SSX5

[OSEK compliant, analyzable, run-time kernel]

Library

[Standard Build]

Library

[Timing Build]

Library

[Extended Build]

Time Compiler

[Analysis tool]

System Generator

[Enhanced OIL tool]


Realogy real time architect
Realogy Real-Time Architect

RTArchitect

OIL Tool

ResourceOptimisations

TimingAnalysis

Static API

Scaleable

Analysable

SSX5 Extensions

[Periodic schedules, planned schedules, tasksets, WCET API]

OSEK OS v2.2[BCC1&2, ECC1&2,COM CCCA&B,Combined Resources]

OSEK Optimisations[Lightweight tasks, countedactivation, static activationchecking]

SSX5


Stimuli and responses

Stimulus

Response

Stimulus

Response

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

Now

Stimuli and Responses

BANG!

Time


Stimuli and responses1
Stimuli and Responses

  • Stimuli are the triggers to the embedded system

    • can be internal or external to the embedded system and are typically reported as interrupts

      • e.g. sensor values, timer hardware, etc.

  • When a stimulus is detected by the embedded system one or more responses must be generated

    • can be internal or external to the embedded system

      • e.g. actuation of some hardware, availability of some calculation, etc.

  • Responses are implemented by tasks or interrupts

  • Responses must meet associated deadlines


Rta development process

Developer provided

RTA Development Process

Real-Time Architect

Analysis

results

RTA

Model

RTABuild

RTK

Time Compiler

Application

specific RTK API

(C header files)

ORTI

file

RTK API

(C header files)

RTK library

Target specific

assembly files

Linker

Debugger

Application

assembly files

Application code

(C source files)

Object

Code

OSEK

Application

Assembler

Compiler



A proposed solution
A Proposed Solution

  • Develop a real-time emulator that can be installed on any machine with minimal configuration

    • Use an open-source operating system as a basis

    • Use a virtual machine architecture

    • Allow users to run the emulator, and write software for it for development and educational use

    • Allow for multiple emulations on a single machine


Why linux
Why Linux

  • The first hurdle to jump is the cost

    • Most RTOSs cost more than any student can afford. Universities often do not have copies either

  • Linux is free, and has many real-time extensions

    • These extensions require that you rebuild the kernel.

    • These extensions require that you have administrator access to the machine

    • For a Linux novice, the RT Linux extensions can be very difficult to learn


Choosing an open source rtos
Choosing an Open Source RTOS

  • Of the many (over 60) real time operating systems, only a few of them are free and open-source

  • eCos by RedHat is open source and free. Not a Linux variant

  • uC/OS-II is also open source and free for research

  • Some of the most widely used open source solutions are Linux based

  • Linux is a Unix clone, and in many ways acts like most Unix variants on the market, but it is free and open source

  • The most widely used open source real time Linux solutions are RTAI and RTLinux


Terminology
Terminology

Application

Shell

Kernel

Hardware


Rtlinux
RTLinux

  • Real Time Linux

  • Developed by the Open Source community and FSMLabs

  • FSMLabs has a patent on the design, and keeps it's development environment propriatary

  • Most Open Source developers did not like this, and went on to develop RTAI linux

  • RTLinux is still available, and is still being updated, but not at the rate of RTAI


Rtlinux architecture

Application

Shell

Kernel

Hardware

RTLinux Architecture

  • Major modifications to the kernel

  • New scheduling system with real-time capabilities

  • Kernel Modules support the real-time API


RTAI

  • Real Time Application Interface

  • Developed by the Departmenet of Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Milano (DAIPM)

  • Originally based off of RTLinux, but no longer shares any code

  • Actively being developed

  • User-group support

  • Minimal kernel Modifications

  • User Space real-time capabilities


Rtai architecture

Application

Shell

Kernel

Hardware

RTAI Architecture

  • Creates an RT Hardware Abstraction Layer (RTHAL) in the kernel

  • Adds LXRT (Linux Real-Time) to allow for user applications to use the RT interface


Rtlinux vs rtai
RTLinux vs RTAI

  • RTLinux and RTAI preform equally as well

  • RTAI uses a much less intrusive kernel modification

  • RTAI includes LXRT

  • RTAI has more user support

  • RTAI is being developed more actively

    Because of the added features of RTAI, I have chosen RTAI to use for my project


User mode linux
User Mode Linux

  • Creates a software emulation of the hardware layer (similar to VMWare)

    • Uses kernel signals in place of interrupts

    • Hardware timers for kernel switching are handled with the ALARM signal

    • The kernel was then ported to this “hardware”

    • The kernel can be run in user mode, as a process

    • This allows for different distributions to run on the same machine


User mode linux architecture

Application

Shell

Kernel

Hardware

User Mode Linux Architecture



Integration of rtai and uml
Integration of RTAI and UML

  • Port the RTHAL to the UML architecture

  • Create an RTAI module to support all other RTAI functions

  • RTAI OS will run as a user process, creating an emulator for RTAI


Integration of rtai and uml1
Integration of RTAI and UML

  • Benefits

    • Does not require root access

    • Multiple systems can be hosted on a single server

    • No need for the user to build the kernel

    • Use a debugger on kernel modules

  • Use a full distribution (eg Redhat) and use a smaller distribution on the RT system (eg Slackware) and test out the target file system

    • Distribution of the emulator is simple: The kernel and a single file for the filesystem

    • Hardware devices can be simulated

  • Drawbacks

    • Not really in real time

    • No direct access to hardware


Fingerprint verification using ti c6711 dsp micro

Fingerprint Verification using TI C6711 DSP Micro

Professor Subra Ganesan

Department of Computer Science and Engineering


Biometrics is
Biometrics is…

recognition or verification of a person’s identity using his or her physical characteristics, such as fingerprint


Approaches
Approaches

  • Common: Minutia-based

    • find ridge stops or breaks in a fingerprint, to characterize different fingerprints

    • No invariant representation of print, number of minutia not fixed…


Process flow chart

Sectorization

Input Image

Find Center

Normalize

Gabor

0

Gabor

22.5

Gabor

45

Gabor

67.5

Gabor

90

Gabor

112.5

Gabor

135

Gabor

157.5

Feature Vector of Variances

Database of

Fingerprints

Comparison

& Decision

Process Flow Chart


Preprocessing
Preprocessing

  • Find Core

    • Follow the local direction of ridge flow towards the core (center point)


Preprocessing cont d
Preprocessing (Cont’d)

  • Tesselate

    • Define a region of interest around the core

    • Divide the region into smaller sectors


Preprocessing cont d1
Preprocessing (Cont’d)

  • Normalize Sectors

    • Adjust mean and variance of pixels in each sector to constant


Commercial products sensors
Commercial Products: Sensors

Optical vs. Solid State


Development kit
Development Kit

  • Kit from Authentec Includes:

  • Sensor

  • C5509 DSP

  • Keypad

  • LCD

  • Software algorithm


Applications
Applications

  • ATM

  • LapTop computer

  • Automotive Door entry or Ignition control

  • Controlled access to Safe Room or document

  • Security Doors

  • Airport Check Ins

  • Credit Card Use/ Driving License ID



Conclusion
Conclusion

My Research is focused on

Real Time Embedded Systems.

DSP based Embedded system

UML and Model Driven Architecture.

CAN Applications

RFID and automotive applications

Finger Print Verification using DSP

Watermarking

MEMS Applications