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Preparing and Structuring a Training Event. By: Rainer Zachmann. Unit: M03U03. Content. From goal to curriculum Training methods Training materials Course organisation. Introduction. A training event should be based on a training needs assessment (TNA).

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preparing and structuring a training event

Preparing and Structuringa Training Event

By: Rainer Zachmann

Unit: M03U03

  • From goal to curriculum
  • Training methods
  • Training materials
  • Course organisation
  • A training event should be based on a training needs assessment (TNA).
  • The curriculum gives an overview of the training programme and helps in planning.
  • This Unit describes training methods, materials and course organisation.
from goal to curriculum1
From goal to curriculum
  • Course organisers:
    • analyse the background of the training event;
    • assess the initial situation;
    • analyse the root causes of problems;
    • determine the goal for the expected situation.
from goal to curriculum2
From goal to curriculum
  • The curriculum should be based on a training needs assessment.
  • The curriculum defines the knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA) to be addressed.
the curriculum
The curriculum
  • Expected learning outcomes,
  • Content,
  • Methods,
  • Learning materials,
  • Evaluation instruments.
  • Learning outcomes should be SMART = Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound.
  • Avoid vague formulations,

such as “to know” or “to understand”;

better use "to explain".

an example of an objective
An example of an objective
  • After completion of the PGIS Training-Kit, trainees will be able to:
    • identify opportunities and constraints;
    • design PGIS interventions;
    • collaborate with local communities;
    • take informed decisions.
training methods1
Training methods
  • People learn best by what they see and do and less well by what they only hear.
  • The best approach combines several senses.
training methods2
Training methods
  • Use:

- presentations for increasing knowledge;

- practical exercises for improving skills;

- role plays for influencing behaviour and


  • Allow trainees to participate.
lectures and presentations
Lectures and presentations
  • Lecturing is one-way communication;

it transfers information to a large group.

  • Trainers should not load too much information into one session.
lectures and presentations1
Lectures and presentations
  • Lecturers should use visual aids that are specifically designed for a lecture.
  • Visual and oral communication address complementary areas of the brain:

"whole-brain learning".

group work
Group work
  • Group work is a most efficient.
  • A group possesses more knowledge than any individual.
  • All group members should participate actively.
  • Trainers should prevent a few people from dominating the group.
group work1
Group work
  • There are many kinds of group work:
    • in “Snowballing”, a group discussion begins in pairs of participants;
    • for group rotation, a common method is called “the world café”.
  • Trainers present a key question to the participants.
  • Everyone contributes ideas.
  • All ideas are valid; there are no "wrong" ideas.
  • A variation of brainstorming is to collect ideas on meta cards.
  • Group cards into categories.
  • Everyone participates.
case studies
Case studies
  • Provide an opportunity to elaborate on real situations.
  • Trainers present the cases in writing and/or visually.
  • Provide appropriate information.
  • Should not be overloaded with details.
demonstrations and exercises
Demonstrations and exercises
  • Involve most of human senses.
  • Most appreciated by trainees.
  • Should relate to the theoretical introductions.
  • Trainers should conduct trial runs before involving trainees.
field visits
Field visits
  • Allow to demonstrate and practise techniques and experiences which are not available at the course venue.
  • Every visit should contribute to the whole picture of the course.
  • Objectives for each visit must be specified.
  • Trainers should visit the fields before going there with trainees.
training materials1
Training materials
  • Support communication, teaching and learning.
  • Serve as future reference materials.
  • Simple notes, textbooks, audiovisuals, computer-assisted procedures and Internet-based simulations.
training materials2
Training materials
  • Good training materials are:
    • developed for a specific purpose

(such as the components of the PGIS-TK);

    • targeted at specific audiences;
    • oriented towards the learning outcomes.
training materials3
Training materials
  • Good training materials are:
    • presented in a simple, yet technically correct way;
    • tested and evaluated;
    • attractive to users.
training materials4
Training materials
  • Trainers should not expect perfect materials right from the beginning.
  • Training materials evolve over time.
  • Written materials and visual aids are most commonly used.
written materials
Written materials
  • Include pamphlets, handouts, bulletins, textbooks, etc.
  • Presented in hard copy or electronic form.
  • Authors should consider content, writing and formatting.
visual aids
Visual aids
  • Include multimedia, transparencies, electronic presentations (PPTs), posters, etc.
  • Contain text, tables, graphics, drawings and photographs.
  • Should be based on carefully prepared written documents, such as written training materials.
visual aids1
Visual aids
  • Improve communication.
  • Enhance the impact of presentations.
  • Consider recommendations for design, quantity of information, fonts, graphics, etc.
course organisation1
Course organisation
  • Includes planning, preparing, implementing, monitoring, evaluating and following-up on course content and logistics.
course organisation2
Course organisation
  • A course director may be responsible for the overall course organisation.
  • One coordinator or committee may take care of content and another of logistics.
  • Coordinators should work with checklists specifying responsibilities and schedules.
course content
Training needs assessment

Course announcement






Resource people

Training materials




Course content
course content1
Course content
  • Coordinator maintains contact with resource people.
  • Coordinator should keep content lean: KISS: Keep It Short and Simple.
  • Include a little less than might be required.
course content2
Course content
  • In principle, coordinators should:
    • prioritise what trainees must, should or might learn;
    • follow a logical organisation;
    • move from general to specific, simple to complex, known to unknown.
logistical arrangements
Secretarial services


Travel arrangements




Training facilities




Social activities

Emergency provisions

Logistical arrangements
logistical arrangements1
Logistical arrangements
  • Coordinators should consider climate, vegetation season, cropping pattern and cultural and religious calendars.
  • Opportunities and facilities must allow practical work.
logistical arrangements2
Logistical arrangements
  • Course duration should be short.
  • Coordinators should plan well in advance, but be prepared to plan on short notice.
  • Trainees need time to obtain official permission and visas.
course organisation3
Course organisation
  • Coordinators should organise carefully, use common sense, avoid last-minute improvisation … … but be prepared to do so.