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Social Studies Gateway Review Packet. Content Related material. 15 Possible Topics for the Social Studies Gateway Exam. Ancient Civilization Greece Rome Byzantine Empire The Mongols The Middle Ages The Renaissance The Age of Exploration & Discovery The Reformation English History

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Social studies gateway review packet

Social Studies Gateway Review Packet

Content Related material

15 possible topics for the social studies gateway exam

15 Possible Topics for the Social Studies Gateway Exam

Ancient Civilization



Byzantine Empire

The Mongols

The Middle Ages

The Renaissance

The Age of Exploration & Discovery

The Reformation

English History

Absolute Monarchs

Enlightenment & Revolution

Industrial Revolution

Age of Imperialism

World War I

A few things to remember

A few things to remember…

  • Along with this information, be sure to include something from your World History class that you learned.

  • Focus your studying on only the areas that you are unsure of.

  • Remember this is just a review, use the documents in the exam to help you too.

    Good luck!

The ancient river valley civilization

The Ancient River Valley Civilization

Ancient river valley civilizations

Ancient River Valley Civilizations

1. Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

2. Egypt: Nile River

3. India: Indus and Ganges Rivers

4. China: Yellow and Yangtze Rivers

Social studies gateway review packet

The Growth of Civilization

  • Agricultural Revolution: farming created settled communities

  • The five traits of a civilization

    • Cities

    • Writing

    • Specialized workers

    • Complex institutions

    • Technology

Mesopotamia fertile crescent located between tigris and euphrates rivers

Mesopotamia / Fertile CrescentLocated between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Some contributions of ancient civilizations

Some Contributions of Ancient Civilizations

  • Sumer:first civilization, plow, sailboat, wheel, cuneiform, ziggurats, polytheism

  • Babylon: Code of Hammurabi

  • Phoenicians: the alphabet and improved shipbuilding

  • Jews: ethical monotheism, Judaism

  • Persians: well-built empire based on tolerance

Egypt gift of the nile

Egypt = “Gift of the Nile”

History of pharaohs

History of pharaohs

  • Around 3200 B.C., King Narmer of Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and united the two kingdoms

  • The Egyptian kinds used the title of “pharaoh” and were considered god/kings

Some contributions of egyptian civilization

Some contributions of Egyptian civilization

  • Hieroglyphics

  • Egyptian religion (polytheistic)

  • Pyramids

  • Mummification

  • Medicine

Indus valley

Indus Valley

  • Located between Indus and

    Ganges Rivers

Some of the many contributions of indus valley civilizations include

Some of the many contributions of Indus Valley civilizations include. . .

  • Sanskrit

  • Hinduism

  • Buddhism

  • Reincarnation

  • Caste system

Complex institutions religion in the indus valley hinduism

Complex Institutions Religion in the Indus ValleyHinduism

  • Hinduism is a mixture of Aryan and ancient Indian culture

  • The sacred writings are the Vedas that explain the basic philosophy of Hinduism.

  • Beliefs include reincarnation, moksha, and castes.

A second religion of the indus valley is buddhism

A second religion of the Indus Valley is Buddhism

  • Founder = Siddhartha Gautama

  • Beliefs = Four Noble Truths, Eightfold Path, Nirvana

  • No complex rituals, as in Hinduism, and it is taught in the everyday language.

China s river valley

China’s River Valley

  • Located between the Yellow (Huang-He) and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Rivers

Chinese philosophies

Chinese philosophies

  • Confucianism: based on family, respect and education

  • Daoism: based on living simply and harmony with nature

  • Legalism: based on a strict and powerful government

Some of china s many contributions include

Some of China’s many contributions include. . .

  • Printing

  • The Great Wall of China

  • Dynastic cycle



The Birthplace of Democracy

Geography affected greece

Geography affected Greece



  • ¾ of land is covered by mountains

  • Many peninsulas, islands, coastlines and inlets

  • No navigable rivers

  • Made transportation and travel difficult

    • People could not form one united government so they created many city-states.

Three early civilizations

Three early civilizations

  • Minoans

  • Mycenaeans

  • Dorians



  • Lived on the island of Crete

  • Equality for women

  • Advanced society

  • Seafaring



  • Used bronzed weapons and tools

  • Warriors

  • Trojan War



  • Less advanced

  • Illiterate (Dark Ages)

  • Oral tradition

    • Homer, The Odyssey

      • Epic poems

Greek religion


Gods took human form and emotions; were immortal

Myths taught to understand mysteries of nature/life

Greek Religion

Greek city states

Greek city-states

  • City-state: a city and its surrounding areas (polis)

  • Citizens (free adult males) served the polis

  • Citizen armies

  • Public meetings held in the agora (market place) and acropolis (fortified hilltop)

Contrasting two major city states athens and sparta



Created democracy


Life based on education and culture

Women had few rights



Dual monarchy / military oligarchy


Life based around military

Women enjoyed more rights

Contrasting two major city states: Athens and Sparta

Athenian democracy

Athenian democracy

  • Direct democracy: laws voted on and proposed directly by assembly of all citizens

  • Citizens: male, 18 years of age, born of citizen parents

  • Executive branch: composed of council of 500 men

The persian wars

The Persian Wars

  • 490-479 B.C.

  • Persia versus Greece

  • Persia invaded Athens and the Athenians won

  • Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state

  • Athens became the leader of the Delian League

Golden age of greece

Classical culture flourished.

Pericles, a hero from the Persian Wars, became leader of Athens.

Strengthened democracy

Increased wealth and power of Athens

Beautified Athens

Golden Age of Greece

Contributions of the golden age

Contributions of the Golden Age

  • Architecture: The Parthenon

  • Sculpture: figures show grade, strength and serenity / bodies in motion / ideal beauty (classical art)

  • Greeks invent drama (tragedy and comedy)

Peloponnesian wars

Peloponnesian Wars

  • 431-404, B.C.

  • Sparta versus Athens

  • Sparta won

  • Ends the Golden Age

Greek philosophers

Greek philosophers

  • Socrates

    • First great Western philosopher

    • Questioned authority

    • Socratic Method

  • Plato

    • Teacher at The Academy

    • Taught through dialogues

  • Aristotle

    • Teacher at the Lyceum

    • Taught by use of logic

Alexander the great

Alexander the Great

  • From Macedonia

  • Son of King Philip II

  • Became king at age 20

  • Student of Aristotle

  • Invaded Greece, Mesopotamia and India

  • Wanted to create single empire

  • Admired other cultures



  • Mixture of Greek and Eastern cultures

  • Koine = common language spoken in Hellenistic cities, dialect of Greek

  • Alexandria (in Egypt) became center of Hellenistic culture

    • Port city, good for trade

    • Statues of Greek gods, a beautiful palace, and the famous lighthouse

    • Center for learning and education

    • Many contributions in science, math, architecture, art and philosophy

Social studies gateway review packet


The Republic

The Empire

The origins of rome

The Origins of Rome

  • 3 founding groups

  • Latin shepherds

  • Greek colonies

  • Etruscan settlements



  • Excellent location

  • Built on the Tiber River

  • Mountainous

  • Mid-point of Italian peninsula

  • Center of Mediterranean Sea

Roman religion

Roman Religion

  • Polytheistic

  • Blending of Greek and Roman religions

Social organization




Role of fathers was important

Role of women was less important


Patricians - upper class, wealthy landowners

Plebeians - lower class, farmers, artisans and merchants

Social Organization

Social studies gateway review packet



Democracy-Election of Senators

Dictatorship-crisis times

Rome had a balanced government*form of democracy called a republic*written law code: the Twelve Tables

The plebeians made progress toward equality

The plebeians made progress toward equality

  • Tribunes of the “Plebs’

    • 10 elected officials to represent the plebeians in the Senate

    • Were granted veto power

  • Twelve tables - codified the laws

  • Citizens’ Assemblies

    • More democratic form of government

    • All adult, Roman males could attend and vote

Punic wars

Punic Wars

  • Carthage vs. Rome

  • Control of trade in Mediterranean

  • Three separate wars

  • Rome ultimately won but was weakened

  • Lead to rise of proletariat

Julius caesar

Julius Caesar

  • Military/government leader, gained popularity and power

  • Tried to save the Republic

  • Made many reforms

    • Grants citizenship, expands senate, creates new jobs, starts colonies, increased pay for soldiers,

  • Became dictator for life, 44 B.C.E.

  • People fear his growing power

  • Assassinated by group of senators

  • Republic collapses at his death

The roman empire

The Roman Empire

  • 1st emperor, Octavian (Caesar’s nephew)

    - Ruled as Emperor Augustus for 41 years

    - Created a strong government

    • Civil service

      - Many problems after his death

    • Succession crisis

    • religion

Contributions of the roman empire

Contributions of the Roman Empire

  • Pax Romana: 207 years of peaceful rule

  • Engineering

    • Aqueducts

    • Complex sewer system

    • Thermal baths

    • Series of highways

    • Coliseum

The rise of christianity

The Rise of Christianity

  • Based on the teachings of Jesus

  • Spread rapidly through empire

  • Christians persecuted

Fall of the roman empire

Fall of the Roman Empire

  • Economic Problems - three sources of prosperity ended (trade, plunder, farms)

  • Military Problems - Goths over ran legions, soldiers fought for money not patriotism

  • Political Decay - officials were no longer loyal to Rome

  • Social Decay - loss of loyalty for government

  • Weakened empire falls after Barbarian attacks (the Huns)

The byzantine empire the eastern roman empire

The Byzantine Empire(The Eastern Roman Empire)

Byzantine empire

Byzantine Empire

  • Barbarian tribes overran Italy

  • Emperor Constantine moved Rome to Constantinople

  • Excellent location for trade

  • Located between Asia and Europe

Politics in constantinople

Politics in Constantinople

  • Empire Justinian tried to rebuild Roman glory

  • Code of Laws

  • Hagia Sophia

The church splits

The Church Splits

  • Differences developed between Eastern and Western Church

  • Christian Church splits

  • West = Rome = Pope = icons = Roman Catholic Church

  • East = Constantinople = Patriarch = no icons = Eastern Orthodox Church

The islamic faith

The Islamic Faith

  • Created by the prophet Mohammed

  • Monotheistic = Allah

  • Holy city = Mecca

  • Religious text = Koran (Qur’ an)

  • Based on the Five Pillars of Islam

The spread of islam

The Spread of Islam

  • Spread through jihad, trade and empire expansion

  • Divided into two sects

    • Shi’ites (minority)

    • Sunni (majority)

Contributions of the arabic world

Contributions of the Arabic World

  • Translated Greek books into Arabic

  • First chemical laboratories

  • Treatment of disease (diagnosed smallpox and wrote an encyclopedia of medicine)

  • Created algebra

  • Arabic numerals

  • Wrote the Arabian Nights

The mongols

The Mongols

Nomadic, Fierce Warriors, and Expert Horsemen

The mongols1

The Mongols

  • From the steppe in Asia (dry, grassy region)

  • Lived in kinship groups called clans

  • Around 1200, leader named Temujin (Genghis Khan) united Mongols under his leadership.

  • Campaign of terror across Central Asia, destroying cities and slaughtering people

Genghis khan

Genghis Khan

  • Title means “universal ruler”

  • Brilliant organizer and warrior

  • Used cruelty and fear as weapons

  • Died in 1227, but his successors continued to expand empire

The mongol empire

The Mongol Empire

4 regions or khanates

  • Mongolia and China

  • Central Asia

  • Persia

  • Russia

Mongol rulers

Mongol rulers

  • Tolerant rulers in times of peace

  • Imposed stability, law and order across Eurasia (Pax Mongolica)

  • Provided safety for trade between Europe and Asia

  • Mongol rulers relied on foreigners to help rule the government

Kublai khan

Kublai Khan

  • Grandson of Genghis Khan, took power in 1260

  • Founded the Yuan Dynasty

  • United China for first time in 300 years

  • Opened China to foreign contacts and trade

  • Tolerated Chinese culture and government

  • Lived luxurious life of Chinese emperor

  • Failed to conquer Japan

  • Restored the Grand Canal, built paved highway

  • Encouraged trade

The end of mongol rule

The End of Mongol rule

  • Succession crisis after death of Kublai Khan

  • Many rebellions in 1300’s

  • Chinese overthrew Mongols in 1368

  • Other Khanates declined, except for Russia

The middle ages

The Middle Ages

The middle ages1

The Middle Ages

Invasion of Barbarian tribes caused end of Roman Empire

Changed way of life in Europe

Disruption of trade

Downfall of cities

Decline in learning

The rise of feudalism

Feudalism = political system

Based on loyalty and the exchange of land for services

Hierarchy of power



Fief = land

The Rise of Feudalism

Manor system

Manor System

  • Manor = small estate

  • Lord = owner

  • Serf = worker; tied to the land

  • Peasants = freemen; could leave the land

  • All inhabitants had duties to perform

The church in the middle ages

The Church in the Middle Ages

  • Center for education and organization

  • Christendom = idea of one kingdom under God

  • Centered around the holy city of Jerusalem

The crusades

The Crusades

  • The “Holy Land” was invaded by Muslims

  • The Church called for military aide

  • Crusades: “journeys to recapture the “Holy Land”

  • Overall, not successful

Results of the crusades

Results of the Crusades

  • The Pope and the feudal nobility both suffered a loss of power.

  • Religious tolerance decreased.

  • Hatred between Muslims and Christians remained high.

  • An increase in trade sparked European expansion.

The plague hit europe in 1496

Expanded trade and increase in population caused diseases

Bubonic plague: carried to Europe by fleas via trading ships

2/3 of European population died

The plague hit Europe in 1496

The renaissance

The Renaissance

Rebirth of classical culture and learning

The renaissance begins

The Renaissance Begins

  • Where?

    • In Florence, Italy (later spread north)

  • When?

    • Around 1300

  • Why?

    • Urban centers, power of the merchants and influence of the de Medici family

  • What?

    • New styles in art, writing and thought

Influence of the crusades

Influence of the Crusades

  • Brought back learning and new ideas from the Middle East

  • New values:

    • Artists and writers were eager to be known as individuals

    • Love of classical learning flourished

    • Enjoyment of worldly pleasures

    • Idea of the ideal man changed

    • Idea of the ideal women changed

Renaissance art

Renaissance Art

  • Artists began painting and sculpting lifelike images

  • Often art would glorify the human body

  • Discovered techniques to use perspective

Renaissance artists

Renaissance Artists

  • Michelangelo

    • David, the Sistine Chapel

  • Da Vinci

    • Mona Lisa, the Last Supper,

    • scientific experiments and inventions

  • Rembrandt

    • the Flemish School of Art

Social studies gateway review packet

Writers and the printing press helped

spread the Renaissance spirit

to the rest of Europe.

The age of exploration and discovery

The Age of Exploration and Discovery

God, Gold and Glory!

The age of exploration and discovery1

The Age of Exploration and Discovery

Spread Christianity

Find riches


Renaissance thirst for knowledge

Portuguese exploration

Portuguese explorers

Prince Henry the Navigator*


da Gama


Portuguese colonies


Parts of Africa

Portuguese Exploration

Spanish exploration

Spanish Explorers

Christopher Columbus

Amerigo Vespucci





De Soto

Spanish colonies

South America (except for Brazil)


Southwestern United States


Spanish Exploration

Land disputes between portugal and spain

Land Disputes between Portugal and Spain

  • 1493: Pope Alexander IV Line of Demarcation

  • 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas

English exploration

English explorers

Sir Walter Raleigh

John Cabot

Francis Drake

English colonies


New England

English Exploration

French exploration

French explorers





Marquette and Joliet

French colonies



Parts of Northern America

French Exploration

Dutch exploration

Dutch explorers

Henry Hudson

Dutch colonies

New York

Dutch Exploration

The reformation

The Reformation

Changes in the Catholic church

The reformation1

The Reformation

Conflicts in the Catholic Church

Abuses in the Church

Worldliness of Renaissance popes

Poorly educated lower clergy—some illiterate

Lower clergy having semi-official wives

Selling of indulgences (pardons for sin)

Conflict in the catholic church

Conflict in the Catholic Church

Reasons for Reform:

  • The printing press allows the printing of the Bible and other literature that allowed people to read and interpret for themselves.

  • The people began to see abuses and wanted higher standards for clergy. Reform was demanded.

Martin luther

Luther is angered over the sale of indulgences.

In anger he writes the 95 Theses:

Salvation by faith alone

The Bible is the only authority for Christian life not the church

The priesthood of all believers; meaning that all people can communicate with God as the priests do

Martin Luther

More on luther

More on Luther…

  • Someone took Luther’s ideas and printed them with the printing press. The document was spread across Germany.

  • The church was not happy with Luther’s ideas and he was asked to recant his beliefs.

  • Luther refused and was excommunicated.

  • Charles V tried Luther at the Diet of Worms. The result was the Edict of Worms which declared him a heretic and an outlaw.

  • In spite of this, Luther’s ideas took hold and began to spread across Germany.

John calvin switzerland


Everyone is sinful, but God can save you

Predestination - God knows when you are born whether you will be saved or not-- those who are saved are called “The Elect”

Wanted a theocracy - government ruled by the Church

Followers are known as Calvinists

John Calvin-- Switzerland

John knox scotland

Knox put Calvin’s ideas into practice. His followers overthrew their Catholic Queen (Mary Stuart) and set up a working theocracy.

Followers were known as Presbyterians

John Knox-- Scotland

Henry viii

Henry broke from the church when the Pope refused to give him a divorce from his wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine could not produce a male heir and Henry wanted to remarry.

Henry created the Church of England and named himself head of the new church.

Henry VIII

Counter reformation catholic reformation

Counter-Reformation(Catholic Reformation)

  • Catholics were concerned about Protestants leaving the church so they began their own reforms. These reforms are called the “counter” reforms because they come in response to the Protestants.

  • Pope Paul III called a meeting in Trent.

  • The Council of Trent decided. . .

    • 1. To end the sale of illegal indulgences

    • 2. To clarify church rules, practices, and beliefs

    • 3. To set up more education for priests and clergy

St ignatius of loyola

Founded the Society of Jesus

Members were known as Jesuits.

The society was run like an army.

Their mission was to win Protestants back to the Catholic Church.

St. Ignatius of Loyola

English history

English History


The royalties

The Tudors

Henry VIII (P)

Edward VI (P)

Mary I “Bloody Mary” (C)

Elizabeth I (P)

The Stuarts

Mary “Queen of Scots” (C)

James I (C)

Charles I (C)

<Oliver Cromwell> (P)

<Richard Cromwell> (P)

Charles II (C/P)

James II (C)

William III and Mary II (P)

The Royalties


The tudors

The Tudors

  • Henry VIII dies, 1547

  • Edward VI – young, sickly, Protestant, rules with help of advisors

  • Mary I – succeeds at Edward’s death, cruel, “Bloody Mary”, Catholic

Elizabeth i the virgin queen

Faces many problems

Religious conflicts (Protestant vs. Catholic)

A rival queen (Mary Stuart)

Competition from Spain (Philip II)

Money problems

Issues with Parliament

Known as the most powerful English monarch

Elizabeth I: The “Virgin Queen”

Solutions to religious problems

Solutions to Religious Problems

  • Declared the Act of Uniformity

    • This act created one legal church in England.

  • People must attend or pay a fine.

  • Services were held in English.

  • Some rituals of the Catholic Church were kept to make the Catholics happy.

Stopping the rival queen

Elizabeth’s cousin (Mary Stuart) challenged the throne

Because Elizabeth had no heirs, Mary was her successor

Mary and Philip II of Spain planned to overthrow her

The plot failed and Elizabeth ordered Mary’s execution

Stopping the Rival Queen

The spanish threat

The Spanish Threat

  • Philip attacked England with the Spanish Armada

    • Angered at rejected marriage proposal and raiding of “Sea Dogs”

  • England was victorious

  • Spain’s power declined

Financial and religious problems with parliament

Financial and Religious problems with Parliament

  • Financial:

    • Elizabeth started to build an empire in the Americas with money from investors

    • These investors were part of joint-stock companies

  • Religious:

    • Towards the end of her reign, Puritan members of Parliament began asking for religious changes

    • Puritans were a strong group in Parliament but Elizabeth refused to change

James i of england

James I of England

  • James VI (of Scotland) (son of Mary Stuart) inherits English throne from Elizabeth and becomes James I of England

  • Clashes with Parliament over money and the Church

  • Believes strongly in idea of divine right

Charles i of england

Charles I of England

  • Son of James I

  • Was strong believer in divine right

  • Spent excess of money on wars

  • Dissolved Parliament for 11 years

  • Problems lead to English civil war

Civil war

Civil War!

  • Charles I began to persecute the Puritans. Many left for the Americas.

  • Charles I also tried to make the Scots worship in the Church of England.

  • The Scots began to form an army. War was coming.

  • Charles I has to recall Parliament to get money for war.

More on charles i

More on Charles I…

  • Charles I tried to have key leaders arrested.

  • War began!

  • The Cavaliers (loyal to the King) vs. the Roundheads (Puritans).

  • Oliver Crowell led the Roundheads.

  • The Roundheads won.

  • Charles I was executed!

Oliver cromwell lord protector

Cromwell declared himself “Lord Protector”.

He sent Parliament home and created a republic.

The republic was really a dictatorship.

People lost many freedoms.

When Cromwell died his son took over. This gave England a chance to bring back the monarchy.

Oliver Cromwell: “Lord Protector”

The restoration

Tired of Puritan rule, England “restores” the monarchy by inviting Charles (son of Charles I) to be King Charles II

Charles II (the “Merry Monarch”) did not rule by divine right

Allowed “habeas corpus”

Charles II died and left no heir

Catholic brother, James succeeded as King James II

Ruled under belief of divine right

Forced to abdicate

The Restoration

<Charles II

James II>

William and mary the glorious revolution

William and Mary: The Glorious Revolution

  • The British people were desperate for change.

  • They asked the Protestant daughter of James II’s first wife and her husband to come take over the throne.

  • William and Mary were able to take over without a war.

  • They allowed many positive changes to protect the rights of the people.

  • These changes included:

    • The end of the “divine right of kings.”

    • The people had more power and representation

    • Most importantly…..They signed the Bill of Rights!

Milestones of democracy england 1689

Milestones of Democracy:England 1689

  • Limited power of the monarchy.

  • The monarchy could not act above the law or collect taxes without permission.

  • Only male property owners could vote.

  • Individual rights were protected by the law.

  • Some limitations on freedom still existed for non-Protestants.

Absolute monarchs

Absolute Monarchs

a king of queen who has unlimited power and seeks to control all aspects of history

Absolute monarchs1

Absolute Monarchs

  • Spain: Philip II (Hapsburg)

  • France: Louis XIV (Bourbon)

  • Russia: Peter the Great (Romanov)

  • Prussia: Frederick the Great (Hohenzollern)

Philip ii

Philip II

  • Defender of Catholicism

  • Spanish wealth used to annihilate Protestants and Muslims

  • Launched Spanish armada against England, defeated by Elizabeth I, weakened Spanish power

Louis xiv the sun king

Louis XIV, the “Sun King”

  • French Catholic king

  • Most powerful ruler in French history

  • Weakened power of the nobles

  • Helped France attain economic, political and cultural brilliance

  • Patron of the arts

  • Attempted to expand France’s boundaries

  • His many wars brought ruin to France

Peter the great

Peter the Great

  • Russian genius

  • Wanted to Westernize Russia

  • Established St. Petersburg

  • Many successes in governmental and cultural reforms

  • Russia becomes a major European power

Frederick the great

Frederick the Great

  • Loved music, philosophy and poetry

  • An aggressor in foreign affairs

  • Pushed to extend Prussian territory

  • Encouraged religious tolerance

  • Supported legal reform

  • Earned the title “the Great” by achieving his goals for Russia

Enlightenment and revolutions europe and the americas

Enlightenment and Revolutions:Europe and the Americas

A Time of Change

The enlightenment

The Enlightenment

  • Europe

  • 1720-1790

  • Changes in thinking led to reforms in government

Enlightenment thinkers

Enlightenment Thinkers

  • Thomas Hobbes

    • Ideas of a social contract

    • Leviathan

    • Man is evil, must have a strong government

  • John Locke

    • Ideas regarding natural rights

    • Two Treatises on Government

    • Man has rights to life, liberty, property

The philosophers advocate reason

The Philosophers advocate reason

  • Voltaire

    • Used satire

    • Wrote many essays

    • Defended tolerance, reason, freedom of speech and religion

  • Montesquieu

    • Political liberty

    • Admired Britain’s balanced government

    • Separation of powers

  • Rousseau

    • Committed to individual freedom

    • Social contract

    • Government by consent of the governed

Impact of the enlightenment

Impact of the Enlightenment

  • Salons

  • Secular outlook on life

  • Importance of the individual

  • Ideas of freedom and rights

  • Enlightened despots

  • Democracy

The road to revolution

The Road to Revolution

  • People were dissatisfied with governments.

  • Citizens often did not have a voice in government.

  • People decided to fight for their freedom.

  • Wars for freedom were called revolutions.

Social studies gateway review packet

Most of the revolutions occurred between 1775 and 1826.

  • 1775 - 1781 = American Revolution

  • 1789 - 1799 = French Revolution

    (1799 – 1815) = Napoleon’s rule

  • 1810 - 1826 = Latin American Revolution

The american revolution 1775 1781

Great Britain’s King George III ruled the American colonies

The 13 colonies paid taxes to England but had no representation in Parliament

Colonists were angry

Wrote the Declaration of Independence

Broke ties with Great Britain

George Washington led the American troops to victory!

The American Revolution1775-1781

The french revolution 1789 1799

French people were angry over high taxes, unfair class systems (3 estates), and poor standard of living

Influenced by ideas of Enlightenment and American independence, the French people revolt!

The French Revolution1789-1799



  • The Third Estate creates a series of new, unsuccessful governments

  • Many innocent people died in the bloody violence

  • Both King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were guillotined during the reign of terror

  • “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity!” was the slogan of the revolution

Napoleon s new government 1799 1815

Napoleon Bonaparte, a national hero, leads the new government and appoints himself Emperor of France.

Napoleon wants to conquer the world.

Becomes very powerful and makes his brother king of Spain.

After a series of wars with Europe, Napoleon is defeated and exiled.

Napoleon’s new government1799-1815

Congress of vienna 1814 1815

Congress of Vienna: 1814-1815

  • European countries needed to restore stability and restructure pre-Napoleonic boundaries

  • Austria’s conservative foreign minister Metternich, led a meeting in Vienna

  • His goals were to:

    • Restore legitimacy of the monarchs

    • Restore the balance of power

    • Weaken France

    • Compensate severely damaged countries (reparations)

More on the congress of vienna

More on the Congress of Vienna…

  • The Congress of Vienna was successful; however, democratic ideas could not be erased

  • New political philosophies were born

    • Conservatism: keep the old ways

    • Radicalism: violent changes

    • Liberalism: small reforms, no violence

    • Nationalism: love of one’s country

Latin american revolutions 1810 1826

Latin American Revolutions1810-1826

  • Spain had colonies in Latin America.

  • Latin America includes the countries south of the United States.

  • The people of Latin America wanted their freedom from Spain.

  • 1813 - Napoleon lost power in Europe.

  • The people of Latin America chose this time to revolt.

Latin american colonies win independence

Latin American colonies win independence

  • Haiti was the first colony to win independence in 1804

  • Father Miguel Hidalgo helped Mexico win its freedom from Spain

  • Simon Bolivar fought for the freedom of Venezuela and many other colonies

  • Jose de San Martin fought for Argentina’s freedom

  • Peru was the last colony to gain independence in 1826

The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution


The industrial revolution1

The Industrial Revolution:

Factors aiding industrial growth

Changes in farming

Rise in population

Geographic advances

New inventions

Effective banking system

Politically stable

Great britain birthplace of industry

Great Britain, birthplace of industry

  • Great Britain, having all the necessary factors was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution

  • Textiles, the major industry, had been produced in the homes (cottage industry)

One invention leads to another

One invention leads to another. . .

  • Six Major Inventions Change the Textile Industry

    • John Kay - Flying Shuttle

    • James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny

    • Richard Arkwright - Water Frame

    • Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule

    • Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom

    • Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin

Transportation improves

Transportation Improves

  • To help transport goods faster from place to place engineers built:

    • Better roads (John Mc Adams)

    • Canals (human-made waterway)

    • Railroads (The Rocket)

Industrial revolution changed lives

Industrial Revolution Changed Lives

  • The Industrial Revolution spread to other countries.

  • The growth of factories brought people to the cities.

  • The working conditions in factories began to improve.

  • The middle class social structure grew.

  • Social tensions began to build between the different classes.

New political systems evolve


Robert Owens

Wealth of country to be shared equally

Share ownership of certain properties such as factories and the railroad


Karl Marx

Communist Manifesto

Wealth and power to be shared by all

In reality, state controls everything

New political systems evolve

The age of imperialism

The Age of Imperialism


The age of imperialism1

Imperialism: the act of extending one’s rule over others

European countries needed raw materials to supply their industries.

Prestige was associated with owning many or large territories.

Missionaries wanted to spread Christianity.

New markets were needed for European products.

The Age of Imperialism

Britain s lead is challenged

Britain’s Lead is Challenged

  • Up until the late 1800’s Britain was the most powerful nation in the world.

  • Germany and the United States begin to challenge Britain for economic power.

  • Countries begin to tax imported British goods to protect their own industries.

  • Britain has few sources of raw materials and desperately needs them for production.



  • Competition among the European nations for territories was strong.

  • Just as Britain saw the advantages of colonies, so did other European countries.

  • Almost every European country competed for colonies as did Japan and the US.

European superiority

European Superiority

  • Europeans believed that the new technology developed during the Industrial Revolution proved their superiority.

  • They would be able to successfully manage colonies from far away by railroads, telegraph cables, and steamers.

  • Europeans also believed that their religion and morals were the right way to live and felt a strong sense of duty to show others “the right way.”

Imperialism in africa

Imperialism in Africa

  • Competition for colonies in Africa was so fierce that European countries feared war.

  • A meeting in Berlin in 1884 was called to settle land disputes. (No African rulers were invited)

  • European countries agreed that any European country could claim land by sending in troops to occupy that area.

  • Border lines were drawn without regard to the native cultures.

European countries in africa

European Countries in Africa

The following countries all had colonies in Africa

during the 1900’s.

  • Britain

  • France

  • Germany

  • Italy

  • Portugal

  • Belgium

  • Spain

Africa became a continent of colonies

Africa became a continent of colonies

By the 1900s only two countries remained free from colonial rule; the rest of Africa had been carved into colonial territories.

  • Liberia – A country set up by former U.S. slaves with American support.

  • Ethiopia – Benefited from its mountainous geography, strategic position between three major colonial powers and its own strong leader.

Three types of imperialistic rule

Three types of imperialistic rule

  • Colony = total rule

  • Protectorate = military presence / self rule

  • Sphere of influence = pay taxes to preserve self-rule

The importance of south africa

The importance of South Africa

  • Location of the Cape of Good Hope

  • Discovery of diamonds

The reality of imperialism in africa

The reality of Imperialism in Africa

  • African were expected to work and pay taxes

  • Many were forced to work against their will

  • Africans were treated as second class citizens and faced discrimination

  • Europeans found a wealth of mineral resources in Africa

  • Europeans also used the land for cash crops

  • They also introduced Christianity to Africans

Imperialism in south asia

Britain found in India what it did not in Africa.

A supplier of raw material for European factories

A large market for British goods

A large workforce for factories built in India

The British East India Company set up trading posts in India in the 1600’s.

India became a sphere of influence under the British East India Company.

Even though the company was under the control of the British Crown, the company was free to govern India as it saw fit. It even had its own army.

The British Crown did not intervene until it had to suppress an uprising called the Sepoy Rebellion.

Imperialism in South Asia

The sepoy rebellion

The Sepoy Rebellion

  • Sepoy – Indian soldiers working for the British East India Company

  • Angered by deception of the British East India Company, led a rebellion.

  • The British East India Company could not control the revolt, so the British troops set up a colony

Britain controls india

Britain controls India

  • Britain built transportation and communication systems

  • Projects built and funded by Indians and their taxes

  • Indians were treated as second class citizens and faced discrimination

Imperialism in china

China was a self-sufficient country which meant it did not need to trade with other countries. It had little interest in European goods.

English merchants smuggled opium into China and created a demand.

The Opium War was fought to try to end the British control of the substance but China was defeated.

The Treaty of Nanking was signed which allowed Britain to establish spheres on influence in China.

Imperialism in China

Open door policy

Open Door Policy

  • China was carved into spheres of influence

  • Americans saw what was happening in China and feared they would lose their trading opportunities in China.

  • The Open-Door Policy was established to enforce an “open-door” or the freedom to trade and sell to China for all merchants of all nations.

  • This prevented China from being colonized but its fate lay in hands of other nations.

Chinese nationalism

Chinese Nationalism

  • Many Chinese citizens also felt like second class citizens in their own country.

  • Most of their major cities were controlled by outsiders.

  • Nationalist groups such as the Boxers begin to form and protest foreign occupancy.

Japan s isolation

Japan’s isolation

  • Like China, Japan had practiced isolation for a long time

  • Fearing loss of independence, Japan conceded to trade with the U.S. and agreed to demands of Mathew Perry

  • Japan began to industrialize and modernize its country

  • Japanese studied the ways of Westerners and adopted the best ones

  • Japan was smart with its finances and stayed out of debt

Imperialism in the western hemisphere

Imperialism in the western hemisphere

  • A demand for Latin American goods began to grow. Latin American countries borrowed money from American and European banks to fund enterprises.

  • Unable to repay their debts, many of the lending nations began to take over the industries in Latin America and influence the countries politically.

    • Roosevelt Corollary

The pacific islands

The Pacific Islands

  • The Pacific Islands were rich in resources and had military advantages.

  • The U.S. was interested in Hawaii and made it a territory in 1898.

  • The U.S. acquired the Philippines and Guam as a result of the Spanish- American War.

World war i

World War I

World war i1

World War I

Underlying causes:


Alliance system





  • The belief that the use of force is an acceptable way to decide political problems

  • Built large armies and stockpiled weapons

  • Developed war plans

  • War fought on two fronts

Alliance system

Alliance system

  • Fear leads nations to seek out friends

  • Triple Alliance– Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

  • Triple Entente– Great Britain, France, Russia

  • Promise to assist if ally is under attack



  • Competition creates tension between European nations

  • Competing for: colonies, new markets, sources of raw materials

  • Imperialized areas: Africa, India, parts of the Middle East, China



  • Love of one’s country

  • Influenced the Great Powers to make their nation “the best”

  • Power includes money, land and control of trade markets

  • Minor countries sought independence

Social studies gateway review packet


  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand was murdered

  • Austria declares war on Serbia

  • Both alliances mobilize for fighting

  • Battle zones include: Europe, Asia and Africa

  • New weapons include: machine guns, tank, poison gas, flame throwers

The war ends

The War Ends

  • Both sides suffer from loss of life and widespread destruction

  • U.S. enters war in 1918 on the side of the allies

  • November 9th, 1918: Germany surrenders

  • Armistice signed November 11– end of fighting

  • Treaty of Versailles

  • League of Nations

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