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Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences. Organic chemistry. ( MGOC-101). Classification and nomenclature of organic compound. Supervision: Prof.Dr.Shehata El-Sewedy Dr.Fatma Ahmed. Outcomes. By the end of this lecture, the students will be able to.

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Faculty of Allied Medical

Sciences

Organic chemistry

(MGOC-101)


Classification and nomenclature of organic compound

Supervision:

Prof.Dr.Shehata El-Sewedy

Dr.Fatma Ahmed


Outcomes

By the end of this lecture, the students will be able to

1-Recognize classification and nomenclature

of organic compound

2-Known the different functional group of

organic chemistry

3- learn rule for aromaticity

4- known chemical bonds and bond fission

6-Differentiate between aliphatic and

aromatic compound


Organic compounds contain only two elements hydrogen and carbon.


a.Aromaticcompounds


*Aromatic compounds must have:-

1-High degree of unsaturation

2-Planar arrangement of Pz orbitals to make resonance

3-High degree of stability due to conjugation

4-Resistance for addition reactions

5-Cyclic

*6-Obey Hückel Rule:-

This is rule for aromaticity


Aromaticity

Hückel Rule:-

This is rule for aromaticity

The number of π- electrons= 4n+2

Where n=0, 1, 2, 3, ………Integral number


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b.Aliphaticcompounds


IUPAC SYSTEM

Prefix+ Infix + Suffix

1-Prefix

Gives the number of carbon atoms of the parent chain


2-Infix

Gives the nature of carbon –carbon

Bond in the parent chain.


3-Suffix

Gives the class type of organic compound


Ex: CH3-CH3 Ethane

Butanal

Pentanoic

THE STRUCTURAL THEORY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Atoms or elements in organic compound can form afixed number of bonds (valence ):


Carbon atoms can be bonded to each other by:

( δ) (δ, π) (δ,2π)


Hybridization

It means mixing of atomic orbitals in the atom to generate new atomic orbitals called hybrid orbitals


Bond polarity

Polar bond: bond between two different atoms such as H-Cl , H-F

Non polar bond: bond between two same elements such as H-H, F-F

Bond fission

It is the breaking of bond


There two types of bond fission

1)Homolytic fission

One electron to each atom so homolytic fission gives free radicals and

it occurs in presence of heat, light or peroxide

2)Heterolytic fission

The two bond electrons move to one atom so heterolytic fission

gives anion & cation and it occurs in presence of polar solvent


Quiz time


Which of the following structures are

aromatic according to Hückel'srule?

A B

Mention types of bond fission?


Student Question


1-Which of the following structures are

aromatic according to Hückel'srule?

A B

C D E


2-Mention types of bond fission?

3-Explain and give example

A- valence

B-Bond polarity

C-Bond fission


Recommended textbooks:

1-Raymond Chang. Chemistry: An introduction to organic chemistry. 10th ed. 2009 2008

2-Zumdehl. Organic Chemistry; study guide and solution manual. 2008


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