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CHEMICAL EQUATIONS. The process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. Reactions are represented by a chemical equation Reactants Products Must have the same number and type of atoms on both sides of the equation. Synthesis Reactions.

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Chemical equations

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

The process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances



Synthesis reactions
Synthesis Reactions

  • Two reactants produce one product

  • Examples:

    NH3 + HCl  NH4Cl

    H2 + O2 H2O

    Ag + S  Ag2S

    Al + Cl2 AlCl3


Decomposition
Decomposition

  • One reactant produces two products

  • Examples

    Ag2O  Ag + O2

    PCl5 PCl3 + Cl2

    H2O2 H2O + O2

    CuO  Cu + O2


Single displacement
Single Displacement

  • One element and one compound producing a different element and compound

  • Examples

    Fe + H3(PO4)  H2 + Fe3(PO4)2

    H2 + CuO  Cu + H2O

    Zn + HCl  H2 + ZnCl2

    Cl2 + KBr  Br2 + KCl


Double displacement
Double Displacement

  • Two compounds producing two different compounds

  • Examples:

    Al(NO3)3 + NaOH  Al(OH)3 + NaNO3

    PbCl2 + Li2SO4 PbSO4 + LiCl

    ZnBr2 + AgNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + AgBr

    BaCl2 + KIO3 Ba(IO3)2 + KCl


Combustion
Combustion

A hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water

Examples:

CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O

C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O


Chemical equations from names
Chemical Equations from Names

  • magnesium and hydrogen chloride produce hydrogen and magnesium chloride

  • calcium hydroxide and lithium chloride produce lithium hydroxide and calcium chloride

  • decompose copper (II) oxide into copper and oxygen

  • aluminum and iron (III) oxide produce iron and aluminum oxide

  • combustion of butane (C4H10) in air to produce carbon dioxide and water


Predict the product
Predict the Product

Magnesium and nitrogen

Copper II oxide is decomposed into its elements

Chlorine and potassium bromide

Calcium hydroxide and hydrogen sulfate

Iron (III) chloride and sodium hydroxide

Methane is combusted in air


Solubility rules
SOLUBILITY RULES

  • All common salts of Group I elements and ammonium are soluble

  • All common acetates and nitrates are soluble

  • All binary compounds of Group 7 (other than F) with metals are soluble except those of silver, mercury I and lead

  • All sulfates are soluble except those of barium, strontium, calcium, silver, mercury I and lead

  • Except for those in Rule 1, carbonates, hydroxides, oxides, sulfides and phosphates are insoluble


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