12 years inrne hi tech hep group in the accelerator physics
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12 years INRNE Hi-Tech HEP Group in the Accelerator Physics. G. Asova, I. Tsakov, I. Bonev Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy Bulgarian Academy of Science. Outlook. Hi-Tech group in INRNE Activities Activities in DESY Results Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen

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12 years INRNE Hi-Tech HEP Group in the Accelerator Physics

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12 years INRNE Hi-Tech HEP Group in the Accelerator Physics

G. Asova, I. Tsakov, I. Bonev

Institute of Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

Bulgarian Academy of Science


  • Hi-Tech group in INRNE

    • Activities

    • Activities in DESY

    • Results

  • Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen

    • Transverse phase space diagnostics

      • Single slit scan with EMSY

      • Tomographic reconstruction

      • Examples with experimental data

  • Summary

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

INRNE Hi-Tech group

  • A small but active group was created around the INRNE Innovation Bureau “INRNE Hi-Tech High Energy Physics Group”.

  • Found in the mid 1990-s by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ivan Tsakov

  • Specialized on design and mass production of specific unique scientific apparata for experiments and application in the field of HEP experiments and accelerator physics for JINR, CERN and DESY

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

DESY Zeuthen

DESY Hamburg

Hi-Tech activities

  • Members working on hardware, software, mechanics, theoretical and experimental physics

    • ‘Sphere’ and ‘Becquerel’ in JINR

    • CMS, ATLAS, CLOUD in CERN – core software, design and construction

    • HERA-B, H1, FLASH and PITZ in DESY – design and operation of measurement devices, data analysis

  • Co-authors of more than 70 papers and conferences proceedings

  • 3 PhD theses defended, 2 are in final stage of preparation

  • 5 bachelors and 5 masters theses finisheduntil now

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Hi-Tech Group in DESY

  • Good international reputation -due to achieved results and group activity and under the invitation by the INRNE Director Prof.J. Stamenov, CoresspondingMember of BAS, our group has been visited by a lot of wellknownphysicists as Prof. Malakhov, Prof. Krasavin, Prof. Rusakovich, Prof. Shelkov, Prof.Golutvin, Prof.Kadyshevski, Dr.Klein, Dr.Pitzl,Dr.Jenni, Dr. Walter, Prof.Wagner,

    Dr.Kirkby, Dr. Stephan, etc.

  • Dr.U.Gensch, DESY Zeuthen director representative, visit in 2003 Sofia →the INRNE became a member of thePhoto-InjectorTest Facility at DESY in Zeuthencollaboration

    • financial support by the VI-th Framework Program

    • further activity endeavored by F. Stephan,

      PITZ spokes person, Sofia 2009

  • Dr.Trinesand Dr. Brinkmann, DESY

    directorate representatives, visit → INRNE

    involved in the DESY FLASHproject

  • 2007 visit of the current BAS President

    Acad. N. Sabotinov in DESY

    → involving BAS in the European XFEL

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Results 1998 - 2008

  • DESY director Prof. A. Wagner – talk on the XFEL purposes and possibilities

    • Mrs. Ekaterina Vitkova, Science

      and Education Minister → General Agreement,

      BAS involved in the XFEL, 2008

  • 14 devices developed and finalized under contracts with Dubna JINR, CERN, DESY on the base of signed protocols with

    • JINR Laboratories of HEP, Radiobiology, Nuclear Problems

    • DESY HERA-B and H1 gas systems, PITZ, FLASH, XFEL

Minister Vitkova, Prof. Stamenov,

Acad. Sabotinov, Prof. Wagner, Dr. Tsakov

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

RF waveguide dry air system, XFEL

4 Emittance Measurement Systems EMSY, PITZ

→ 2 PhDs defended

Prof. Stamenov, I. Tsakov, F. Stephan, G. Trowitzsch

Dipl. Eng, I. Bonev

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev


p ~ 30 MeV/c

Gun & solenoids

60 MV/m

p ~ 7 MeV/c

Cs2Te photocathode

Transverse emittance (EMSYs, quadrupoles)

Photo-Injector Test Facility at DESY in Zeuthen

Characterization and optimization of high brightness sources for linac based FELs like FLASH and the XFEL

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Single slit emittance measurement with EMSY

emittance dominated beamlets → linear transport is valid

Image courtesy L. Staykov

  • direct measurement for space-charge dominated beams

  • sensitive to signal to noise, especially for lateral beamlets → low-charge limited

  • applicable to relatively low energies (due to divergence)

  • not 2D simultaneously

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Results year 2009, nominal charge 1 nC*


preliminary results

  • Laser temporal profile: 2.1/23.1/2.4 ps

  • Laser spot size = 0.36 mm


x’ [mrad]


y=1.26 um

ey=1.26 mm mrad


e mm mrad


y’ [mrad]





x=0.76 um

ex=0.76 mm mrad












Imain, A

min. exy = 0.98 mm mrad 100% RMS emittance

  • F. Stephan, High Brightness Beam Measurements @ PITZ, Maui 2009

  • Major part of the analysis L. Staykov, beforehand V. Miltchev

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Slit scan - summary

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev


  • J. Radon (1917) – reconstruction of an N-dimensional object from an infinite set of its (N-1)-dimensional projections◊

  • Full 2p rotation of the object in small equidistant angular steps

  • [Math. Phys, Klasse 69: 262-277]

  • IEEE transactions 1986

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

FODO cell

(focusing – drift – defocusing – drift)

Phase-space tomographic reconstruction

  • equidistant angular steps between the screens for both planes → 2D

  • rms spot size is uncharged

  • the beam parameters at the entrance of the lattice are adjusted

  • the data treatment assumeslinear transport between the screens

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev


Tomography at PITZ

Position of reconstruction

Identical cell

cell length 0.76 m

quadrupole: max g = |6 T/m|, Leff = 0.043 m

phase advance f = 45°

p = 15 – 40 MeV/c

Q = 1 nC

e = 1 mm mrad → The beam is space-charge dominated in the full energy range. Still, linear transport is needed.

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Applicability of different algorithms to limited data sets

Reconstruction with limited data sets

  • N rotations → N projections of the (x, y)

  • Which algorithms are applicable to small N? → N = 4


Filtered backprojection

Algebraic reconstruction

Maximum entropy



C++ & ROOT code developed for PITZ

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

MAD* by

ASTRA** bx

Matching – linear case

Quadrupole strength k should be defined so that it guarantees periodicity along the FODO lattice.

Δx,y < 1 %

Δex = 0.07 %

e = 1.2 mm mrad , p = 32 MeV/c, dE/E << 1%

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

* Methodical Accelerator Design

** A Space charge Tracking Algorithm

MAD by


Matching – including particles’ repulsion

Δx = 6 %

Δy = 3 %

Δex = 2.5 %

e = 1.2 mm mrad , p = 32 MeV/c, dE/E << 1%

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Experimental test with quadrupole scan setup

2 magnets needed


Quad Q1

Quad Q3





Measure emittance

5.15 m – position of reconstruction and then transport to EMSY1

Observation screen has to be the closest to the position of reconstruction

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Reconstruction of 0.5 nC, Gaussian pulse

13 projections

ex, N = 1.885 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.823 mm mrad

19 projections

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

23 ps FWHM, RT/FT = 2.3ps







Reconstruction of 1 nC, flat-top profile

Solenoid current corresponding to the measured minimum emittance

Slit scan


ex, N = 1.07 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.39 mm mrad

  • Common features in both distributions

    • the reconstruction shows bigger area where charge can be distributed

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

385 A, EMSY, 0.5 % intensity cut

Reconstruction of 1 nC, flat-top profile

0.5 % intensity cut → 5 pC

Slit scan








ex, N = 1.07 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.37 mm mrad

  • Common features in both distributions

    • elongated non-symmetric tales

    • non-symmetric density of the core

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Solenoid scan…

sxx' = 0.08 mm mrad

ex, N = 0.99 mm mrad

sxx' = 0.04 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.18 mm mrad

sxx' = 0.1 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.13 mm mrad

sxx' = 0.17 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.33 mm mrad

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

The PITZ collaboration

Colleagues actively participating in measurements / new design:

  • LAL Orsay:M. Jore, A. Variola

  • LASA Milano:P. Michelato, L. Monaco, D. Sertore

  • LNF Frascati:D. Alesini, L. Ficcadenti

  • MBI Berlin:G. Klemz, I. Will

  • TU Darmstadt:E. Arevalo, W. Müller

  • Uni Hamburg:J. Rönsch

  • YERPHI Yerevan:L. Hakobyan, M. Khojoyan

  • DESY, Zeuthen site:J. Bähr, A. Barnyakov*, H.J. Grabosch,

    Y. Ivanisenko, M. Hänel, M. Krasilnikov,

    M. Nozdrin**, M. Mahgoub, B. O’Shea***, M. Otevrel, B. Petrosyan, S. Riemann,

    S. Rimjaem, A. Shapovalov****, F. Stephan, G. Vashchenko

  • DESY, Hamburg site:A. Brinkmann, K. Flöttmann, S. Lederer,

    D. Reschke, S. Schreiber

  • BESSY Berlin:R. Ovsyannikov, D. Richter, A. Vollmer

  • CCLRC Daresbury:B. Militsyn

  • INRNE Sofia:G. Asova, I. Bonev, K. Boyanov, L. Staykov, I. Tsakov

  • INR Troitsk:A.N. Naboka, V. Paramonov, A.K. Skassyrskaia, A. Zavadtsev

* on leave from BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia** on leave from INR, Dubna, Russia*** on leave from UCLA, USA**** on leave from MEPHI, Moscow, Russia

  • Acknowledgements: R. Brinkmann, U. Gensch, J. Knobloch, L. Kravchuk, V. Nikoghosyan, C. Pagani, L. Palumbo, J. Rossbach, W. Sandner, S. Smith, T. Weiland, G. Wormser

The work had partly been supported by the European Community, contract numbers RII3-CT-2004-506008 and 011935, and by the 'Impuls- und Vernetzungsfonds' of the Helmholtz Association, contract number VH-FZ-005.

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Hi-Tech Group members in DESY 1998-2010

Zlatka Staykova, preparing PhD

Galina Asova, preparing PhD

Vladimir Arsov

Dimitar Mladenov

Anton Stoichev

Rositsa Gergova

Nikolai Evtimov

Lachezar Yotov

Hristo Yotov

Tihomir Plachkov

Konstantin Boyanov

Ivan Tsakov

Ivan Bonev

Filip Mladjov

Ivan Vlaev

Plamen Manchev

Velizar Miltchev, PhD defended

Kaloyan Krastev, PhD defended

Alexander Aleksandov

Gancho Dimitrov

Kalin Nankov

Lazar Staykov, PhD defended

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev


  • Main Hi-Tech Group activity in development and production of unique scientific apparata

    • Knowledge on beam dynamics and measurement techniques

  • Tomography module being installed @ PITZ

  • Different reconstruction algorithms tested

  • 2 different sets of measurements used for reconstruction

    • 0.5 nC, Gaussian pulse

    • 1 nC, flat-top temporal profile compared to the standard slit scan

      • specific features of the phase spaces can be seen with both methods

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

MAD by


Matching along the FODO lattice

Quadrupole strength k should be defined so that it guarantees periodicity along the FODO lattice.

Matching deals easier with the Twiss parameters since the phase advance is a function of the Twiss b.

  • Assume only linear external focusing:

  • do the matching with Methodical Accelerator Design (linear transport)

  • track with A Space-charge Tracking Algorithm

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

The choice of phase advance

For which f the calculated emittance has the smallest relative error with respect to a simulated one?

  • 4 screens → f = p/4

De depends systematically on:

  • Beam size errors – for which phase advance the deviation of the calculated emittance from a predefined one is the smallest, assuming different beam size errors are possible

f = 45° => fixed Twiss on screens:

e = 0.9 mm mrad , p = 32 MeV/c

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev


MAD by


Matching is important – poor periodicity

Including particles’ repulsion.

Δex = 8 %

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

ex, N = 1.515 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.823 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.65 mm mrad

Measured vs simulated


Reco from ASTRA projections

Original ASTRA

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Measured with 1 % cut vs ASTRA


Reco from ASTRA projections

Original ASTRA

ex, N = 1.77 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.823 mm mrad w.o. cut

(3 %)

ex, N = 1.115 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.515 mm mrad w.o. cut

(26 %)

ex, N = 1.65 mm mrad

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

Smaller emittance

Fractional emittance

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev







Quads tomography vs EMSY

The second RED axes are scaled to the ASTRA and quad scan axes

sx = 0.615 mm

sx' = 0.119 mrad

sxx' = -0.034 mm mrad

ex, N = 1.823 mm mrad

sx = 0.49 +/- 0.01 mm

sx' = 0.03 +/- 0.001 mrad

sxx' = 0.01 +/- 0.005 mm mrad

ex, N = 0.913 +/- 0.025 mm mrad

Such a discrepancy is still not conclusive since there is a single complete measurement.

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

  • Slide 7 celiq, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 23, 24, 27 celite

  • Sledwa Velizar i Lazar za EMSYtata – napraweno, 1-2 slaida

  • Tomographiq – predimstwa w srawnenie s emsy, design, ochakwani rezultati, s/w

Asova, Tsakov, Bonev

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