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CHAPTER: 19 – The Changing Life of the People. OVERALL . In general, is the standard of living improving during the 18 th century?. Marriage and the Family. How did the combination of the nuclear family and late marriage influence Europe?.

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CHAPTER: 19 – The Changing Life of the People

OVERALL

  • In general, is the standard of living improving during the 18th century?


Marriage and the Family

  • How did the combination of the nuclear family and late marriage influence Europe?

parish records self-sufficiency inheritance / approval


Marriage and the Family

  • What could happen to young men and women working outside of the family structure?

apprenticeship domestic service


Marriage and the Family

  • Describe attitudes toward premarital sex, illegitimacy, and family planning before 1750.

contraception community controls


Marriage and the Family

  • How do patterns shift as industrialization begins?

urban migration illegitimacy explosion romance wages


Marriage and the Family

  • How does prostitution evolve during this time period?

legality venereal disease courtesans


Marriage and the Family

  • What are the attitudes toward homosexuality over time and throughout social classes?

sodomy laws producing heirs subcultures middle class morality


Children and Education

  • What issues revolved around babies?

infant mortality / childbirth nursing / wet-nursing


Children and Education

abortion / infanticide foundling homes


Children and Education

  • Why was this a dangerous time to be a child?

emotional attachment childhood mortality discipline Enlightenment Rousseau’s Emile


Children and Education

  • What educational opportunities are available?

Jesuit schools “charity schools” compulsory universal education


Popular Culture and Consumerism

  • What books are popular during the “reading revolution”?

Bible / chapbooks fantasy almanacs / manuals pamphlets tabloids


Popular Culture and Consumerism

  • What recreational activities were available for leisure time?

winter months alcohol municipal sponsorship entertainment for profit blood sports carnival


Popular Culture and Consumerism

  • Who ate well and who had poor diets?

“just price” / bread riots rural / poor townspeople upper class market gardening new overseas foods


Popular Culture and Consumerism

  • Why is the 18th century a consumer revolution?

clothing homes status possessions individualism


Religious Authority and Beliefs

  • How had the structure of religion developed by the 1700’s?

parish “territorial churches” state control Jesuits Edict on Idle Institutions


Religious Authority and Beliefs

  • Why is the 18th century a “Second Reformation”?

Pietism John Wesley Methodism


Religious Authority and Beliefs

  • What other groups participate in the religious revival?

Catholic festivals / processions folklore Jansenism *Hasidism


Religious Authority and Beliefs

  • Where is superstition still prevalent?

pagan beliefs witches Enlightenment


Medical Practice

  • Is health advanced for the average person in the 18th century?

faith healers apothecaries purging bloodletting rich vs. poor


Medical Practice

  • Were hospitals safe havens?

cauterization / amputation painkillers / anesthesia sanitation / infection asylum / lunatics


Medical Practice

  • Were midwives more effective than doctors?

Madame du Coudray


Medical Practice

  • What is the most tangible benefit of the Scientific Method on the common people?

Mary Wortley Montagu Edward Jenner smallpox vaccination


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